This guide explains requirements in the ADA Standards for operable parts.
Operable Parts Covered
Compliance is required for operable parts located in accessible spaces and along accessible routes. Operable parts include light switches, electrical and communication receptacles, thermostats, alarm pulls, automatic door controls, and other elements used by facility occupants.
Examples of Operable Parts
Examples of Operable Parts in Kitchens
Requirements apply generally to all types of operable parts covered. They are also referenced by technical sections of the standards covering drinking fountains, faucet and flush controls, ATM and fare machines, appliances, storage, windows, and door and gate hardware, and other elements.
Accessible Features of Operable Parts
Forward and Side Approaches
At most elements, clear floor space can be positioned for either a forward approach or a side approach. A forward approach is required at some elements, such as drinking fountains and lavatories, for easier access.
Forward Approach and Reach
Clear Floor Space
Clear floor space for forward approaches must extend up to or, if knee or toe space is provided, below operable parts. This facilitates access since the forward reach does not extend beyond a wheelchair user’s toes.
If clear floor space is obstructed on both sides more than half the minimum required depth, a wider clearance (36” min.) is required for maneuvering and sway.
Knee and Toe Space
If the forward reach to operable parts extends over an obstruction, such as a counter, clearances for toes and knees is required below. The knee and toe space must be at least as deep as the reach depth measured from the leading edge of the obstruction.
The range for unobstructed reaches (15” – 48”) applies only to those portions of elements that are operable. Non-operable portions can be located outside the range.
Obstructed High Reach
The maximum reach of 48” is reduced to 44” when the depth of reach over an obstruction exceeds 20”. Knee and toe space must extend the full depth of reach.
Side Approach and Reach
Clear Floor Space
Clear floor space can be oriented for a side approach instead of a forward approach at most operable parts. Nominal centering of the space on operable portions of elements is advisable, but not required (except at washers and dryers).
Additional clearance is required if the space is obstructed on three sides for more than half the depth to allow easier maneuvering into the space.
The range for side reach, like forward reach is 15” to 48” if unobstructed. The maximum reach depth for this range is 10” measured from the available clear floor space.
The operable parts of fuel dispensers located on existing curbs can be up to 54” high.
Obstructed High Reach
The maximum high reach is reduced to 46” when the reach over an obstruction is deeper than 10” (to a maximum of 24”). Obstructions at side reaches are limited to a height of 34”.
Side Reach Radius
Elements located in corners can be difficult to reach from a side approach.
Advisory Reach Range for Children
- tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist, or
- more than 5 pounds of force (lbf) to operate.
Are redundant controls for an element required to comply?
If redundant controls, other than light switches, serve a single element, one control in each space is not required to comply. If a redundant control is located in a different space, however, it must comply. All light switches are required to comply.
What types of electrical or communication receptacles are exempt because they serve a “dedicated use”?
Electrical receptacles serving a dedicated use include those installed for appliances, including refrigerators, ranges, and dishwashers, and wall clocks. Floor electrical receptacles are also exempt. Communication receptacles serving a dedicated use include phone jacks, data ports, network and audio-visual connections. Electrical receptacles provided for portable communication devices such as TTYs are not covered by this exception and must comply.
Do reach range requirements apply to elements or only to operable parts of elements?
Reach range requirements apply to the operable portions of elements, including handles, controls, switches, buttons, control pads and other mechanisms that must be activated or manipulated for use. Non-operable portions of elements do not have to be within accessible reach ranges.
Must operable parts be usable with a closed fist?
Closed-fist operation is a good performance test but is not required by the standards. Many types of operable parts, such as pull handles, satisfy the requirements even though they may not be operable with a closed fist.
Are turn-key locks prohibited by the standards?
Key locks or key cards are not prohibited by the standards which apply only to the fixed portions of operable parts. Similarly, items dispensed by ATMs and fare machines, such as receipts, cash, fare cards, and vending machine products are not covered by the standards.