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The Public Right-of-Way Accessibility Guidelines (PROWAG) rulemaking has concluded. The PROWAG final rule has been published in the Federal Register. Please visit the Access Board’s PROWAG page for the guidelines.

Synthesis of Literature Relevant to Roundabout Signalization to Provide Pedestrian Access


1. United States Department of Justice. 2005. ADA Home Page. Retrieved September 30, 2005, from

2. United States Access Board. 2005. Pedestrian Access to Modern Roundabouts. Retreived August 30, 2005, from

3. Guth, D., D., Ashmead, R. Long, and P. Ponchillia. 2005. Blind and Sighted Pedestrians’ Judgments of Gaps in Traffic at Roundabouts. Human Factors 47(2):314-342.

4. Inman, V. W., G. W. Davis, and D. Sauerburger. 2005. Roundabout Access for Visually Impaired Pedestrians: Evaluation of a Yielding Vehicle Alerting System for Double-Lane Roundabouts. Proceedings, National Roundabout Conference, Vail, CO.

5. Geruschat, D. R., and S. E. Hassan. 2005. Driver Behavior in Yielding to Sighted and Blind Pedestrians at Roundabouts. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 99(5):286-312.

6. U. S. Access Board (2005) Public Rights-of-Way Guidelines. Retrieved June 28, 2006 from

7. Robinson, B. W., R. Troutbeck, B. Werner, B. Lothar, , K.Courage, M. Kyte, J. Mason, A. Flannery, E. Myers, J. Bunker, G. Jacquemart. 2000. Roundabouts: An Informational Guide. Document Number FHWA-RD-00-067, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

8. Transportation Research Board. 2005. NCHRP Project 3-78, Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Retrieved January 10, 2006, from

9. Myers, E., L. Redegerdts, and E. Ferguson. 2005. Literature Review: Signalization to Provide Roundabout Access. Memorandum: Kittleson & Associates, June 29, 2005.

10. Davies, D. G. 1999. Research, Development, and Implementation of Pedestrian Safety Facilities in the United Kingdom. Document Number FHWA-RD-99-089, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

11. Williams, M. C. 1984. Effects of Converting a Zebra to a Pelican Crossing. TRRL Supplementary Report 830, Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL), Crowthorne, Berkshire, UK.

12. Bentzen, B. L., and L. S. Tabor. 2005. Accessible pedestrian signals. American Council of the Blind. Retreived August 18, 2005 from

13. Brown, M. 1995. The Design of Roundabouts. H.M.S.O., London.

14. Baranowski, B. 2004. Pedestrian crosswalk signals at roundabouts: Where are they applicable?. Report presented at ITE District 6 Annual Meeting.

15. Marlow, M., and G. Maycock. 1982. The Effect of Zebra Crossings on Junction Entry Capacities. TRRL Supplementary Report 724, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, Berkshire, U. K.

16. Crown, B. 2005. Re; signalized roundabout crossings. Personal communication, e-mail to V. W. Inman, received September 7, 2005.

17. Transport for London Street Management. 2005. Do Traffic Signals at Roundabouts Save Lives? Transportation Professional (April 2005).

18. Guichet, B. 2005. Evolution of Roundabouts in France and New Uses. Proceedings, National Roundabout Conference, Vail, CO.

19. Guichet, B. 2005. Roundabouts in France: Safety and New Uses. Presentation at National Roundabout Conference, Vail, CO.

20. Guichet, B. 2005. Section on Carrefours with traffic signals. Personal communication. E-mail received August 23, 2005 by V. W. Inman

21. de Leeuw, M. 2005. Signalized Roundabouts. Personal communication. E-mail received September 9, 2005 by V. W. Inman.

22. Fortuijn, L. G. H. 2003. Pedestrian and Bicycle-Friendly Roundabouts; Dilemma of Comfort and Safety. Institute of Transportation Engineers 2003 Annual Meeting and Exhibit, Seattle, Washington.

23. Fortuijn, L. G. H., and P. J. Carton. 2005. Turbo Circuits: A well-tried concept in a new guise. Unpublished manuscript.

24. Ekman, L., and C. Hydén. 1999. Pedestrian Safety in Sweden. Document Number FHWA-RD-99-091, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.

25. Hydén, C. (2005). Personal communication. E-mail received December 6, 2005 by V. W. Inman.

26. Garder, P. 2005. RE: FWD: [ITETRAFFIC] Ped Signals at Multi-Lane Roundabouts. Message posted on Roundabouts@LISTSERV.KSU.EDU on 12/21/2005.

27. Federal Highway Administration. 2003. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways - 2003. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.

28. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 2001. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, D. C. See exhibit 2-24.

29. Inman, V. W., G. W. Davis, and D. Sauerburger. (in press). Pedestrian Access to Roundabouts: Assessment of Motorist Yielding to Visually Impaired Pedestrians and Potential Treatments to Improve Access. Report Number FHWA–HRT–05–080, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

30. Bentzen, B. L., and L. Tabor. 1998. Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Accessible Design for the Blind, Berlin, MA

31. 2006. Retrieved from, November 1, 2006.

32. Mack, L. 2005. Cost estimate for Navigator APS. Received from Polara Engineering, Inc., Fullerton, CA., on November 13, 2005.

33. Tucson Department of Transportation. 2005. Retrieved from, September 12, 2005.

34. Nassi, R. B. 2005. Bird Watching Tucson Style., PowerPoint presentation received January 10, 2006.