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The Public Right-of-Way Accessibility Guidelines (PROWAG) rulemaking has concluded. The PROWAG final rule has been published in the Federal Register. Please visit the Access Board’s PROWAG page for the guidelines.

Development of Surface Roughness Standards for Pathways Used by Wheelchair Users

Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C.A § 12101 et seq. (1993)

Americans with Disability Act Accessibility Guidelines, 36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1191 (2010)

Boninger, M. L., Cooper, R.A., Fitzgerald, S.G., Lin, J., Cooper, R., Dicianno, B., Liu, B. (2003) Investigating neck pain in wheelchair users. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(3), 197-202.

Cooper, R.A., Thorman, T., Cooper, R., Dvorznak, M.J., Fitzgerald, S.G., Ammer, W,…Boninger, M.L. (2002). Driving Characteristics of Electric-Powered Wheelchair Users: How Far, Fast, and Often Do People Drive?. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83, 250-255
Cooper, R.A., Wolf, E., Fitzgerald, S.G., Dobson, A., Ammer, W., Boninger, M.L., Cooper, R. (2004). Evaluation of selected sidewalk pavement surfaces for vibration experienced by users of manual and power wheelchairs. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 27, 468-475

Garcia-Mendez, Y. (2012) Assessing the risk of vibration exposure during wheelchair propulsion. (Master’s Thesis). University of Pittsburgh

Gillespie, T. (1992). Everything You Always Wanted to Know about the IRI, But Were Afraid to Ask!. Proceedings from Road Profile Users Group Meeting September 22-24, 1992. Lincoln, NE

International Organization for Standardization. (1997). Mechanical vibration and shock-Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibrations. ISO 2631-1, Geneva, Switzerland

Latif, A.B. (2009) Relationship bewteen international roughness index (IRI) and present serviceability index (PSI). (Unpublished Thesis) Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Loizos, A. & C. Plati (2008) Evolutional Process of Pavement Roughness Evaluation Benefitting from Sensor Technology. International Journal on smart sensing and intelligent systems, 1(2), 370-387.

Pope, M. H. & Hansson, T.H. (1992) Vibration of the spine and low back pain. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 279, 49-59.

Pope, M.H., Wilder, D.G., Magnusson, M.L. (1999) A review of studies on seated whole body vibration and low back pain. Proceedings of The Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H-journal of Engineering in Medicine, 213(6), 435-446.

Requejo, P.S., Maneekobkunwong, S., McNitt-Gray, J., Adkins, R., Waters, R. (2009) INFLUENCE OF HAND-RIM WHEELCHAIRS WITH REAR SUSPENSION ON SEAT FORCES AND HEAD ACCELERATION DURING CURB DESCENT LANDINGS. Journal or Rehabilitation Medicine, 41, 459-466.

Sayers, M.W. & Karamihas, S.M. (1998) The Little Book of Profiling: Basic Information about Measuring and Interpreting Road Profiles. Michigan: The regent of the University of Michigan

Shafizadeh, K., Mannering, F., Pierce, L. (2002) A Statistical Analysis of factors associated with driver-percieved road roughness on urban highways. (WA-RD 538.1). Springfield, VA, National Technical Information Service

Tolerico, M. (2006). Investigation of the Mobility Characteristics and Activity Levels of Manual Wheelchair Users in Two Real World Environments. (Unpublished Thesis) University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA

VanSickle, D. P., Cooper, R.A., Boninger, M.L., DiGiovine, C.P. (2001) Analysis of vibrations induced during wheelchair propulsion. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 38(4), 409-421.

Wei, L., Fwa, T.F., Zhe, Z. (2004) Pavement Roughness Analysis Using Wavelet Theory. Proceedings from the 6th International Conference on Managing Pavements. Queensland Australia

Wolf, E., Cooper, R.A., Pearlman, J.L., Fitzgerald, S.G., Kelleher, A. (2007) Longitudinal assessment of vibrations during manual and power wheelchair driving over select sidewalk surfaces. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 44(4), 573-580.

Yamanaka, H. & Namerikawa, N. (2006). Evaluation method of road roughness profile using IRI index for sidewalks used by bicycles, wheelchairs and pedestrians. Infrastructure Planning Review, 23(4), 1065-1071.

Zimmerman, C. L., Cook, T.M., Goel, V.K. (1993) Effects of seated posture on erector spinae EMG activity during whole body vibration. Ergonomics, 36(6), 667-675.