Appendix A to Part 1194 – Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act: Application and Scoping Requirements

508 CHAPTER 1: APPLICATION AND ADMINISTRATION

E101 General

E101.1 Purpose. These 508 Standards, which consist of 508 Chapters 1 and 2 (Appendix A), along with Chapters 3 through 6 (Appendix C), contain scoping and technical requirements for information and communication technology (ICT) that is accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. Compliance with these standards is mandatory for federal agencies subject to Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 794d).

E101.2 Equivalent Facilitation. The use of an alternative design or technology that results in substantially equivalent or greater accessibility and usability by individuals with disabilities than would be provided by conformance to one or more of the requirements in Chapters 4 and 5 of the 508 Standards is permitted. The functional performance criteria in Chapter 3 shall be used to determine whether substantially equivalent or greater accessibility and usability is provided to individuals with disabilities.

E101.3 Conventional Industry Tolerances. Dimensions are subject to conventional industry tolerances except where dimensions are stated as a range.

E101.4 Units of Measurement. Measurements are stated in metric and U.S. customary units. The values stated in each system (metric and U.S. customary units) may not be exact equivalents, and each system shall be used independently of the other.

E102 Referenced Standards

E102.1 Incorporation by Reference. The specific editions of the standards and guidelines listed in E102 are incorporated by reference in the 508 Standards and are part of the requirements to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where conflicts occur between the 508 Standards and the referenced standards, these standards apply. The Director of the Office of the Federal Register has approved the standards for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies of the referenced standards may be inspected at the Access Board’s office, 1331 F Street, NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004.

E102.2 American National Standards Institute/ Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (ANSI/HFES). Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369 (http://www.hfes.org/Publications/ProductDetail.aspx?Id=76).
ANSI/HFES 200.2 Human Factors Engineering of Software User Interfaces — Part 2: Accessibility, (2008), IBR proposed for Section 502.4.

Advisory E102.2 American National Standards Institute/Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (ANSI/HFES). ANSI/HFES 200.2 provides design specifications for human-system software interfaces to ensure that software is accessible to people with a wide range of physical, sensory, and cognitive abilities, including those with temporary disabilities and older adults. This publication is also available as ISO 9241-171 Ergonomics of Human System Interaction, Part 171: Guidance on software accessibility.

E102.3 American National Standards Institute/ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ANSI/IEEE). Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 10662 Los Vaqueros Circle, P.O. Box 3014, Los Alamitos, CA 90720-1264 (http://www.ieee.org).

ANSI/IEEE C63.19-2011 American National Standard for Methods of Measurement of Compatibility between Wireless Communications Devices and Hearing Aids, Committee C63 – Electromagnetic Compatibility, May 27, 2011, IBR proposed for Section 410.4.1.

Advisory E102.3 American National Standards Institute/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ANSI/IEEE). ANSI/IEEE C63.19-2011 provides a uniform method of measurement for compatibility between hearing aids and wireless communications devices.

E102.4 Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC). Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from the Advanced Television Systems Committee, 1776 K Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20006-2304 (http://www.atsc.org).

A/53 Digital Television Standard, Part 5: AC-3 Audio System Characteristics, (2010), IBR proposed for Section 412.1.1.

Advisory E102.4 Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC). The A/53 Digital Television Standard provides the system characteristics for advanced television systems. The document and its normative parts provide detailed specification of the parameters of the system. Part 5 provides the audio system characteristics and normative specifications. It includes the Visually Impaired (VI) associated service, which is a complete program mix containing music, effects, dialogue and a narrative description of the picture content. ATSC also publishes a companion technical assistance guide to the use of its television standard.

E102.5 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from the Internet Engineering Task Force (http://www.ietf.org).
Request for Comments (RFC) 4103, Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) Payload for Text Conversation (2005), G. Hellstrom, Omnitor AB, and P. Jones, Cisco Systems, IBR proposed for Section 410.6.3.2.

Advisory E102.5 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This standard describes how to carry real time text conversation session contents in Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) packets. Real time text conversation is used alone or in connection with other conversational modalities to form multimedia conversation services. Examples of other conversational modalities are video and voice. Real time text in multimedia conversation sessions is sent character-by-character as soon as it is available, or with a small delay for buffering.

E102.6 International Standards Organization (ISO). Copies of the referenced standards may be obtained from International Organization for Standardization, ISO Central Secretariat, 1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse, CP 56 - CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland (http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=54564).

ISO 14289-1 Document management applications — Electronic document file format enhancement for accessibility — Part 1: Use of ISO 32000-1 (PDF/UA-1), Technical Committee ISO/TC 171, Document Management Applications, Subcommittee SC 2, Application Issues, (2014), IBR proposed for Sections E205.1 and 602.3.1.

Advisory E102.6 International Standards Organization (ISO). Formally known as ISO 14289-1:2014, PDF/UA-1 (Portable Document Format, Universal Accessibility), this is the International Standard for accessible PDF. PDF/UA provides a technical, interoperable standard for the authoring, remediation and validation of PDF content to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities who use assistive technology such as screen readers, screen magnifiers, and joysticks to navigate and read electronic content.

E102.7 International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T). Copies of the referenced standards may be obtained from the International Telecommunication Union, Telecommunications Standardization Sector, Place des Nations CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland (http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T).

E102.7.1 ITU-T Recommendation G.722: General Aspects of Digital Transmission Systems, Terminal Components, 7 kHz Audio-Coding within 64 Kbits/s, (September 2012), IBR proposed for Section 410.5.

E102.7.2 ITU-T Recommendation E.161: Arrangement of digits, letters and symbols on telephones and other devices that can be used for gaining access to a telephone network, ITU – T Study Group 2, (February 2001), IBR proposed for Section 407.3.2.

Advisory E102.7 International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T). G.722 is an ITU-T standard describing how to encode and compress wideband audio and decode it for playback. The G.722 coder-decoder program provides 7 kHz wideband audio at data rates from 48, 56, and 64 kbits/s. It is useful for voice over IP applications, where it provides high quality audio for video conferencing and PC-to-PC calls placed via VoIP services. E.161 defines the assignment of the basic 26 Latin letters (A to Z) to the 12-key telephone keypad.

E102.8 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). Copies of the referenced standards, published by the Telecommunications Industry Association, may be obtained from IHS, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112 (http://global.ihs.com).

E102.8.1 TIA 825-A A Frequency Shift Keyed Modem for Use on the Public Switched Telephone Network, (2003), IBR proposed for Section 410.6.3.1.

E102.8.2 TIA 1083 Telephone Terminal Equipment Handset Magnetic Measurement Procedures and Performance Requirements, (March 2007), IBR proposed for Section 410.4.2.

Advisory E102.8 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). TIA 825-A is the standard for TTY signals on the public switched telephone network interface (PSTN). TIA 1083 defines measurement procedures and performance requirements for the handset generated audio band magnetic noise of wire line telephones, including digital cordless telephones.

E102.9 Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C). Copies of the referenced guidelines may be obtained from the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 32 Vassar Street, Room 32-G515, Cambridge, MA 02139 (http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20).

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, W3C Recommendation, December 2008, IBR proposed for Sections E205.1, E207.2, 405.1 Exception, 501.1 Exception 1, 504.2, 504.3, 504.4, and 602.3.1.

Advisory E102.9 Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C). Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 offers a series of recommendations to make web content more accessible to all users, including persons with disabilities.

E103 Definitions

E103.1 Terms Defined in Referenced Standards. Terms defined in referenced standards and not defined in E103.4 shall have the meaning as defined in the referenced standards.

E103.2 Undefined Terms. Any term not defined in E103.4 or in referenced standards shall be given its ordinarily accepted meaning in the sense that the context implies.

E103.3 Interchangeability. Words, terms, and phrases used in the singular include the plural and those used in the plural include the singular.

E103.4 Defined Terms. For the purpose of the 508 Standards, the terms defined in E103.4 have the indicated meaning.

508 Standards. The standards for ICT developed, procured, maintained, or used by agencies subject to Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act as set forth in 508 Chapters 1 and 2 (36 CFR Part 1194, Appendix A ), and Chapters 3 through 6 (36 CFR Part 1194, Appendix C).

Agency. Any agency or department of the United States as defined in 44 U.S.C. 3502, and the United States Postal Service.

Application. Software designed to perform, or to help the user to perform, a specific task or tasks.

Assistive Technology (AT). Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.

Audio Description. Narration added to the soundtrack to describe important visual details that cannot be understood from the main soundtrack alone. Audio description is a means to inform individuals who are blind or who have low vision about visual content essential for comprehension. Audio description of video provides information about actions, characters, scene changes, on-screen text, and other visual content. Audio description supplements the regular audio track of a program. Audio description is usually added during existing pauses in dialogue. Audio description is also called “video description” and “descriptive narration”.

Authoring Tool. Any software, or collection of software components, that can be used by authors, alone or collaboratively, to create or modify content for use by others, including other authors.

Closed Functionality. Characteristics that limit functionality or prevent a user from attaching or installing assistive technology. Examples of ICT with closed functionality are self-service machines, information kiosks, set-top boxes, fax machines, calculators, and computers that are locked down so that users may not adjust settings due to a policy such as Desktop Core Configuration.

Content. Electronic information and data, as well as the encoding that defines its structure, presentation, and interactions.

Hardware. A tangible device, equipment, or physical component of ICT, such as telephones, computers, multifunction copy machines, and keyboards.

Information technology. Shall have the same meaning as the term “information technology” set forth in 40 U.S.C. 11101(6).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Information technology and other equipment, systems, technologies, or processes, for which the principal function is the creation, manipulation, storage, display, receipt, or transmission of electronic data and information, as well as any associated content. Examples of ICT include, but are not limited to: computers and peripheral equipment; information kiosks and transaction machines; telecommunications equipment; customer premises equipment; multifunction office machines; software; applications; websites; videos; and, electronic documents.

Keyboard. A set of systematically arranged alphanumeric keys or a control that generates alphanumeric input by which a machine or device is operated. A keyboard includes tactilely discernible keys used in conjunction with the alphanumeric keys if their function maps to keys on the keyboard interfaces.

Label. Text, or a component with a text alternative, that is presented to a user to identify content. A label is presented to all users, whereas a name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology. In many cases, the name and the label are the same.

Menu. A set of selectable options.

Name. Text by which software can identify a component to the user. A name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology, whereas a label is presented to all users. In many cases, the label and the name are the same. Name is unrelated to the name attribute in HTML.

Operable Part. A component of ICT used to activate, deactivate, or adjust the ICT.

Platform Accessibility Services. Services provided by a platform enabling interoperability with assistive technology. Examples are Application Programming Interfaces (API) and the Document Object Model (DOM).

Platform Software. Software that interacts with hardware, or provides services for other software. Platform software may run or host other software, and may isolate them from underlying software or hardware layers. A single software component may have both platform and non-platform aspects. Examples of platforms are: desktop operating systems; embedded operating systems, including mobile systems; Web browsers; plug-ins to Web browsers that render a particular media or format; and sets of components that allow other applications to execute, such as applications which support macros or scripting.

Programmatically Determinable. Ability to be determined by software from author-supplied data that is provided in a way that different user agents, including assistive technologies, can extract and present the information to users in different modalities.

Public Facing. Content made available by an agency to members of the general public. Examples include, but are not limited to, an agency website, blog post, or social media pages.

Real-Time Text (RTT). Communications using the transmission of text by which characters are transmitted by a terminal as they are typed. Real-time text is used for conversational purposes. Real-time text also may be used in voicemail, interactive voice response systems, and other similar applications.

Software. Programs, procedures, rules and related data and documentation that direct the use and operation of ICT and instruct it to perform a given task or function.

Telecommunications. The signal transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user’s choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.

Terminal. Device or software with which the end user directly interacts and that provides the user interface. For some systems, the software that provides the user interface may reside on more than one device such as a telephone and a server.

Text. A sequence of characters that can be programmatically determined and that expresses something in human language.

TTY. Equipment that enables interactive text based communications through the transmission of frequency-shift-keying audio tones across the public switched telephone network. TTYs include devices for real-time text communications and voice and text intermixed communications. Examples of intermixed communications are voice carry over and hearing carry over. One example of a TTY is a computer with TTY emulating software and modem.

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). A technology that provides real-time voice communications. VoIP requires a broadband connection from the user’s location and customer premises equipment compatible with Internet protocol.

508 CHAPTER 2: SCOPING REQUIREMENTS

E201 Application

E201.1 Scope. ICT that is procured, developed, maintained, or used by agencies shall conform to the 508 Standards.

Advisory E201.1 Scope. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C. 794d) applies to federal departments and agencies, including the U.S. Postal Service. The term “agency” is defined in Section E103 to include the United States Postal Service and other federal agencies and departments as specified in 44 U.S.C. 3502. That section of the U.S.C. defines “agency” to mean any executive department, military department, Government corporation, Government controlled corporation, or other establishment in the executive branch of the Government (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency, but does not include (a) the General Accounting Office; (b) Federal Election Commission; (c) the governments of the District of Columbia and of the territories and possessions of the United States, and their various subdivisions; or (d) Government-owned contractor-operated facilities, including laboratories engaged in national defense research and production activities.

E202 General Exceptions

E202.1 General. ICT shall be exempt from compliance with the 508 Standards to the extent specified by E202.

E202.2 National Security Systems. The 508 standards do not apply to ICT operated by agencies as part of a national security system, as defined by 40 U.S.C. 11103(a).

Advisory E202.2 National Security Systems. The term National Security System means any telecommunication, or information system operated by the United States government, the function, operation, or use of which involves: intelligence activities; cryptologic activities related to national security; command and control of military forces; equipment that is an integral part of a weapon or weapons system; or systems which are critical to the direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions. Systems that are critical to the direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions do not include systems that are used for routine administrative and business applications. Examples of routine administrative and business applications are payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications. Routine administrative and business applications are covered by this document.

E202.3 Federal Contracts. ICT acquired by a contractor incidental to a contract shall not be required to conform to the 508 Standards.

Advisory E202.3 Federal Contracts. ICT that is incidental to a contract includes materials which are, themselves, not deliverables under the contract. For example, if a contractor is permitted to use money from a contract to acquire a laptop which is used to help create the deliverable for the project, the laptop, itself, is considered incidental to the contract since it is not part of the deliverable.

E202.4 ICT Functions Located in Maintenance or Monitoring Spaces. Where status indicators and operable parts for ICT functions are located in spaces that are frequented only by service personnel for maintenance, repair, or occasional monitoring of equipment, such status indicators and operable parts shall not be required to conform to the 508 Standards.

Advisory E202.4 Functions Located in Maintenance or Monitoring Spaces. When indicators and operable parts for ICT functions are located in maintenance or monitoring spaces but they are operated remotely, the remote controls or interfaces would also not be permitted this exception unless they are also are located in a maintenance or monitoring space.

E202.5 Undue Burden or Fundamental Alteration. Where an agency determines in accordance with E202.5 that conformance to requirements in the 508 Standards would impose an undue burden or would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of the ICT, conformance shall be required only to the extent that it does not impose an undue burden or result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of the ICT.

E202.5.1 Basis for a Determination of Undue Burden. In determining whether conformance to requirements in the 508 Standards would impose an undue burden on the agency, the agency shall consider the extent to which conformance would impose significant difficulty or expense considering the agency resources available to the program or component for which the ICT is to be procured, developed, maintained, or used.

E202.5.2 Required Documentation. The responsible agency official shall document in writing the basis for determining that conformance to requirements in the 508 Standards constitute an undue burden on the agency, or would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of the ICT. The documentation shall include an explanation of why and to what extent compliance with applicable requirements would create an undue burden or result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of the ICT.

E202.5.3 Alternative Means. Where conformance to one or more requirements in the 508 Standards imposes an undue burden or a fundamental alteration in the nature of the ICT, the agency shall provide individuals with disabilities access to and use of information and data by an alternative means that meets identified needs.

Advisory E202.5 Undue Burden or Fundamental Alteration. A determination by an agency that conformance to a particular provision would result in an undue burden or a fundamental alteration in the nature of the ICT does not exempt the ICT in its entirety. The agency is required to ensure conformance of ICT to those provisions that do not result in an undue burden or a fundamental alteration in the nature of the ICT.

E202.6 Best Meets. Where ICT conforming to one or more requirements in the 508 Standards is not commercially available, the agency shall procure the product that best meets the 508 Standards consistent with the agency’s business needs.

Advisory E202.6 Best Meets. This exception only applies when a product meeting the provisions of this document is not commercially available. This document does not require agencies to procure ICT that is not needed by the agencies to perform their mission.

E202.6.1 Required Documentation. The responsible agency official shall document in writing: (a) the nonavailability of conforming ICT, including a description of market research performed and which provisions cannot be met, and (b) the basis for determining that the ICT to be procured best meets the requirements in the 508 Standards consistent with the agency’s business needs.

Advisory E202.6.1 Required Documentation. The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) sets forth the documentation requirements for a determination of commercial non-availability by federal agencies subject to 508 requirements.

E202.6.2 Alternative Means. Where ICT that fully conforms to the 508 Standards is not commercially available, the agency shall provide individuals with disabilities access to and use of information and data by an alternative means that meets identified needs.

Advisory E202.6.2 Alternative Means. Nothing in this document obviates or limits the requirements of other sections of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. An agency still may still have a duty under Sections 501 and 504 to provide access to information and data to individuals with disabilities. Some individuals may require accommodations even when using ICT that fully conforms to the provisions of this document.

E203 Access to Functionality

E203.1 General. Agencies shall ensure that all functionality of ICT is accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, either directly or by supporting the use of assistive technology, and shall comply with E203. In providing access to all functionality of ICT, agencies shall ensure the following:

a. That federal employees with disabilities have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to the access and use by federal employees who are not individuals with disabilities; and

b. That members of the public with disabilities who are seeking information or data from a federal agency have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to that provided to members of the public who are not individuals with disabilities.

E203.2 Agency Business Needs. When agencies procure, develop, maintain or use ICT they shall identify the business needs of users with disabilities affecting vision, hearing, color perception, speech, dexterity, strength, or reach to determine:

a. How users with disabilities will perform the functions supported by the ICT; and

b. How the ICT will be installed, configured, and maintained to support users with disabilities.

Advisory E203.2 Agency Business Needs. An assistive technology needs assessment is an example of how an agency might analyze how a user performs the functions supported by the ICT. Set-up of assistive technology is an example of installation and configuration to support use by people with disabilities. User training is an example of a resource that helps maintain the ability of users with disabilities to use ICT.

E204 Functional Performance Criteria

E204.1 General. Where the requirements in Chapters 4 and 5 do not address one or more features of ICT, the features not addressed shall conform to the Functional Performance Criteria specified in Chapter 3.

E205 Content

E205.1 General. Content shall comply with E205.

E205.2 Public Facing. Content that is public facing shall conform to the accessibility requirements specified in E205.4.

E205.3 Agency Official Communication. Content that is not public facing shall conform to the accessibility requirements specified in E205.4 when such content constitutes official business, and is communicated by an agency through one or more of the following:

1. An emergency notification;
2. An initial or final decision adjudicating an administrative claim or proceeding;
3. An internal or external program or policy announcement;
4. A notice of benefits, program eligibility, employment opportunity, or personnel action;
5. A formal acknowledgement or receipt;
6. A questionnaire or survey;
7. A template or form; or
8. Educational or training materials.

EXCEPTION: Records maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) pursuant to federal recordkeeping statutes shall not be required to conform to the 508 Standards unless public facing.

Advisory E205.3 Agency Official Communication - Exception. Materials submitted to NARA as public records are not required to conform to the provisions of this document even if they are of a type listed in E205.3. However, all agencies are encouraged to do what they can to preserve aspects of documents that contribute to their accessibility, such as structure and formatting.

E205.4 Accessibility Standards. Content shall conform to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements specified for Web pages in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1) or, where applicable, ISO 14289-1 (PDF/UA-1) (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

E206 Hardware

E206.1 General. Where components of ICT are hardware and transmit information or have a user interface, such components shall conform to applicable requirements in Chapter 4.

E207 Software

E207.1 General. Where components of ICT are software and transmit information or have a user interface, such components shall conform to E207 and applicable requirements in Chapter 5.

E207.2 WCAG Conformance. User interface components, as well as the content of platforms and applications, shall conform to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements specified for Web pages in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

Advisory E207.2 WCAG Conformance. WCAG is written to be technology neutral. While oriented towards web pages which are defined as being delivered using HTTP, the WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements can be applied to non-web documents, user interface components, and the content of platforms and applications. Guidance can be found at: http://www.w3.org/TR/wcag2ict.

E208 Support Documentation and Services

E208.1 General. Where an agency provides support documentation or services for ICT, such documentation and services shall conform to the requirements in Chapter 6.

Appendix B to Part 1194 – Section 255 of the Communications Act: Application and Scoping Requirements

255 CHAPTER 1: APPLICATION AND ADMINISTRATION

C101 General

C101.1 Purpose. These 255 Guidelines, which consist of 255 Chapters 1 and 2 (Appendix B), along with Chapters 3 through 6 (Appendix C), contain scoping and technical requirements for the design, development, and fabrication of telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment, and related software, content, and support documentation and services, to ensure their accessibility to and usability by individuals with disabilities. These 255 Guidelines are to be applied to the extent required by regulations issued by the Federal Communications Commission under Section 255 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (47 U.S.C. 255).

C101.2 Equivalent Facilitation. The use of an alternative design or technology that results in substantially equivalent or greater accessibility and usability by individuals with disabilities than would be provided by conformance to one or more of the requirements in Chapters 4 and 5 of the 255 Guidelines is permitted. The functional performance criteria in Chapter 3 shall be used to determine whether substantially equivalent or greater accessibility and usability is provided to individuals with disabilities.

C101.3 Conventional Industry Tolerances. Dimensions are subject to conventional industry tolerances except where dimensions are stated as a range.

C101.4 Units of Measurement. Measurements are stated in metric and U.S. customary units. The values stated in each system (metric and U.S. customary units) may not be exact equivalents, and each system shall be used independently of the other.

C102 Referenced Standards

C102.1 Incorporation by Reference. The specific editions of the standards and guidelines listed in C102 are incorporated by reference in the 255 Guidelines and are part of the requirements to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where conflicts occur between the 255 Guidelines and the referenced standards, these guidelines apply. The Director of the Office of Federal Register has approved the standards for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies of the referenced standards may be inspected at the Access Board’s office, 1331 F Street, NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004.

C102.2 American National Standards Institute/ Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (ANSI/HFES). Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369 (http://www.hfes.org/Publications/ProductDetail.aspx?Id=76).

ANSI/HFES 200.2 Human Factors Engineering of Software User Interfaces — Part 2: Accessibility, (2008), IBR proposed for Section 502.4.

Advisory C102.2 American National Standards Institute/Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (ANSI/HFES). ANSI/HFES 200.2 provides design specifications for human-system software interfaces to ensure that software is accessible to people with a wide range of physical, sensory, and cognitive abilities, including those with temporary disabilities and older adults. This publication is also available as ISO 9241-171 Ergonomics of Human System Interaction, Part 171: Guidance on software accessibility.

C102.3 American National Standards Institute/ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ANSI/IEEE). Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 10662 Los Vaqueros Circle, P.O. Box 3014, Los Alamitos, CA 90720-1264 (http://www.ieee.org).

ANSI/IEEE C63.19-2011 American National Standard for Methods of Measurement of Compatibility between Wireless Communications Devices and Hearing Aids, Committee C63 – Electromagnetic Compatibility, May 27, 2011, IBR proposed for Section 410.4.1.

Advisory C102.3 American National Standards Institute/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ANSI/IEEE). ANSI/IEEE C63.19-2011 provides a uniform method of measurement for compatibility between hearing aids and wireless communications devices.

C102.4 Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC). Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from the Advanced Television Systems Committee, 1776 K Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20006-2304 (http://www.atsc.org).

A/53 Digital Television Standard, Part 5: AC-3 Audio System Characteristics, (2010), IBR proposed for Section 412.1.1.

Advisory C102.4 Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC). The A/53 Digital Television Standard provides the system characteristics for advanced television systems. The document and its normative parts provide detailed specification of the parameters of the system. Part 5 provides the audio system characteristics and normative specifications. It includes the Visually Impaired (VI) associated service, which is a complete program mix containing music, effects, dialogue and a narrative description of the picture content. ATSC also publishes a companion technical assistance guide to the use of its television standard.

C102.5 IETF. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Copies of the referenced standard may be obtained from the Internet Engineering Task Force (http://www.ietf.org).
Request for Comments (RFC) 4103, Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) Payload for Text Conversation (2005), G. Hellstrom, Omnitor AB, and P. Jones, Cisco Systems, IBR proposed for Section 410.6.3.2.

Advisory C102.5 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This standard describes how to carry real time text conversation session contents in Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) packets. Real time text conversation is used alone or in connection with other conversational modalities to form multimedia conversation services. Examples of other conversational modalities are video and voice. Real time text in multimedia conversation sessions is sent character-by-character as soon as it is available, or with a small delay for buffering.

C102.6 International Standards Organization (ISO). Copies of the referenced standards, may be obtained from International Organization for Standardization, ISO Central Secretariat, 1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse, CP 56 - CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland (http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=54564).

ISO 14289-1 Document management applications — Electronic document file format enhancement for accessibility — Part 1: Use of ISO 32000-1 (PDF/UA-1), Technical Committee ISO/TC 171, Document Management Applications, Subcommittee SC 2, Application Issues, (2014), IBR proposed for Sections E205.1 and 602.3.1.

Advisory C102.6 International Standards Organization (ISO). Formally known as ISO 14289-1:2014, PDF/UA-1 (Portable Document Format, Universal Accessibility), this is the International Standard for accessible PDF. PDF/UA provides a technical, interoperable standard for the authoring, remediation and validation of PDF content to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities who use assistive technology such as screen readers, screen magnifiers, and joysticks to navigate and read electronic content.

C102.7 International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T). Copies of the referenced standards may be obtained from the International Telecommunication Union, Telecommunications Standardization Sector, Place des Nations CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland (http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T).

C102.7.1 ITU-T Recommendation G.722: General Aspects of Digital Transmission Systems, Terminal Components, 7 kHz Audio-Coding within 64 Kbits/s, (September 2012), IBR proposed for Section 410.5.

C102.7.2 ITU-T Recommendation E.161: Arrangement of digits, letters and symbols on telephones and other devices that can be used for gaining access to a telephone network, ITU – T Study Group 2, (February 2001), IBR proposed for Section 407.3.2.

Advisory C102.7 International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T). G.722 is an ITU-T standard describing how to encode and compress wideband audio and decode it for playback. The G.722 coder-decoder program provides 7 kHz wideband audio at data rates from 48, 56, and 64 kbits/s. It is useful for voice over IP applications, where it provides high quality audio for video conferencing and PC-to-PC calls placed via VoIP services. E.161 defines the assignment of the basic 26 Latin letters (A to Z) to the 12-key telephone keypad.

C102.8 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). Copies of the referenced standards, published by the Telecommunications Industry Association, may be obtained from IHS, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112 (http://global.ihs.com).

C102.8.1 TIA 825-A A Frequency Shift Keyed Modem for Use on the Public Switched Telephone Network, (2003), IBR proposed for Section 410.6.3.1.

C102.8.2 TIA 1083 Telephone Terminal Equipment Handset Magnetic Measurement Procedures and Performance Requirements, (March 2007), IBR proposed for Section 410.4.2.

Advisory E102.8 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). TIA 825-A is the standard for TTY signals on the public switched telephone network interface (PSTN). TIA 1083 defines measurement procedures and performance requirements for the handset generated audio band magnetic noise of wire line telephones, including digital cordless telephones.

C102.9 Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C). Copies of the referenced guidelines may be obtained from the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 32 Vassar Street, Room 32-G515, Cambridge, MA 02139 (http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20).

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, W3C Recommendation, December 2008, IBR proposed for Sections E205.1, E207.2, 405.1 Exception, 501.1 Exception 1, 504.2, 504.3, 504.4, and 602.3.1.

Advisory C102.9 Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C). Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 offers a series of recommendations to make web content more accessible to all users, including persons with disabilities.

C103 Definitions

C103.1 Terms Defined in Referenced Standards. Terms defined in referenced standards and not defined in C103.4 shall have the meaning as defined in the referenced standards.

C103.2 Undefined Terms. Any term not defined in C103.4 or in referenced standards shall be given its ordinarily accepted meaning in the sense that the context implies.

C103.3 Interchangeability. Words, terms, and phrases used in the singular include the plural and those used in the plural include the singular.

C103.4 Defined Terms. For the purpose of the 255 Guidelines, the terms defined in C103.4 have the indicated meaning.

255 Guidelines. The guidelines for telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment covered by Section 255 of the Communications Act as set forth in 255 Chapters 1 and 2 (36 CFR Part 1194, Appendix B), and Chapters 3 through 6 (36 CFR Part 1193, Appendix C).

Application. Software designed to perform, or to help the user perform, a specific task or tasks.

Assistive Technology (AT). Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.

Audio Description. Narration added to the soundtrack to describe important visual details that cannot be understood from the main soundtrack alone. Audio description is a means to inform individuals who are blind or who have low vision about visual content essential for comprehension. Audio description of video provides information about actions, characters, scene changes, on-screen text, and other visual content. Audio description supplements the regular audio track of a program. Audio description is usually added during existing pauses in dialogue. Audio description is also called “video description” and “descriptive narration.”

Authoring Tool. Any software, or collection of software components, that can be used by authors, alone or collaboratively, to create or modify content for use by others, including other authors.

Closed Functionality. Characteristics that limit functionality or prevent a user from attaching or installing assistive technology. Examples of ICT with closed functionality are self-service machines, information kiosks, set-top boxes, fax machines, calculators, and computers that are locked down so that users may not adjust settings due to a policy such as Desktop Core Configuration.

Content. Electronic information and data, as well as the encoding that defines its structure, presentation, and interactions.

Customer Premises Equipment (CPE). Equipment used on the premises of a person (other than a carrier) to originate, route, or terminate telecommunications or interconnected VoIP service. Examples of CPE are telephones, routers, switches, residential gateways, set-top boxes, fixed mobile convergence products, home networking adaptors and Internet access gateways which enable consumers to access communications service providers’ services and distribute them around their house via a Local Access Network (LAN).

Hardware. A tangible device, equipment, or physical component of ICT, such as telephones, computers, multifunction copy machines, and keyboards.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Information technology and other equipment, systems, technologies, or processes, for which the principal function is the creation, manipulation, storage, display, receipt, or transmission of electronic data and information, as well as any associated content. Examples of ICT include, but are not limited to: computers and peripheral equipment; information kiosks and transaction machines; telecommunications equipment; customer premises equipment; multifunction office machines; software; applications; websites; videos; and, electronic documents.

Keyboard. A set of systematically arranged alphanumeric keys or a control that generates alphanumeric input by which a machine or device is operated. A keyboard includes tactilely discernible keys used in conjunction with the alphanumeric keys if their function maps to keys on the keyboard interfaces.

Label. Text, or a component with a text alternative, that is presented to a user to identify content. A label is presented to all users, whereas a name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology. In many cases, the name and the label are the same.

Menu. A set of selectable options.

Name. Text by which software can identify a component to the user. A name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology, whereas a label is presented to all users. In many cases, the label and the name are the same. Name is unrelated to the name attribute in HTML.

Operable Part. A component of ICT used to activate, deactivate, or adjust the ICT.

Platform Accessibility Services. Services provided by a platform enabling interoperability with assistive technology. Examples are Application Programming Interfaces (API) and the Document Object Model (DOM).

Platform Software. Software that interacts with hardware, or provides services for other software. Platform software may run or host other software, and may isolate them from underlying software or hardware layers. A single software component may have both platform and non-platform aspects. Examples of platforms are: desktop operating systems; embedded operating systems, including mobile systems; Web browsers; plug-ins to Web browsers that render a particular media or format; and sets of components that allow other applications to execute, such as applications which support macros or scripting.

Programmatically Determinable. Ability to be determined by software from author-supplied data that is provided in a way that different user agents, including assistive technologies, can extract and present the information to users in different modalities.

Real-Time Text (RTT). Communications using the transmission of text by which characters are transmitted by a terminal as they are typed. Real-time text is used for conversational purposes. Real-time text also may be used in voicemail, interactive voice response systems, and other similar applications.

Software. Programs, procedures, rules and related data and documentation that direct the use and operation of ICT and instruct it to perform a given task or function.
Specialized Customer Premises Equipment. Assistive technology used by individuals with disabilities to originate, route, or terminate telecommunications or interconnected VoIP service. Examples are TTYs and amplified telephones.

Telecommunications. The signal transmission between or among points specified by the user of information and of the user’s choosing without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.

Telecommunications Equipment. Equipment, other than customer premises equipment, used by a carrier to provide telecommunications services, and includes software integral to such equipment (including upgrades).

Telecommunications Equipment Manufacturer. A manufacturer of ICT that is telecommunications equipment or customer premises equipment.

Terminal. Device or software with which the end user directly interacts and that provides the user interface. For some systems, the software that provides the user interface may reside on more than one device such as a telephone and a server.

Text. A sequence of characters that can be programmatically determined and that expresses something in human language.

TTY. Equipment that enables interactive text based communications through the transmission of frequency-shift-keying audio tones across the public switched telephone network. TTYs include devices for real-time text communications and voice and text intermixed communications. Examples of intermixed communications are voice carry over and hearing carry over. One example of a TTY is a computer with TTY emulating software and modem.

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). A technology that provides real-time voice communications. VoIP requires a broadband connection from the user’s location and customer premises equipment compatible with Internet protocol.

255 CHAPTER 2: SCOPING REQUIREMENTS

C201 Application

C201.1 Scope. Manufacturers of telecommunications equipment shall comply with the requirements in the 255 Guidelines applicable to such equipment when newly released, upgraded, or substantially changed from an earlier version or model. Manufacturers of telecommunications equipment shall also conform to the requirements in the 255 Guidelines for software, content, and support documentation and services where associated with the use of such equipment.

Advisory C201.1 Scope. Existing telecommunications equipment that undergoes minor changes that do not affect functionality is not required to conform to the provisions of these guidelines.

C201.2. Readily Achievable. When a telecommunications equipment manufacturer determines that conformance to one or more requirements in Chapter 4 (Hardware) or Chapter 5 (Software) would not be readily achievable, it shall ensure that the equipment or software is compatible with existing peripheral devices or specialized customer premises equipment commonly used by individuals with disabilities to the extent readily achievable.

Advisory C201.2 Readily Achievable. A determination by a telecommunications equipment manufacturer that it is not readily achievable for ICT to conform to a certain provision does not exempt the ICT in its entirety from coverage under these guidelines. ICT must conform to those provisions that are readily achievable.

In determining whether compliance is readily achievable, telecommunications manufacturers should consider the following factors: the nature and cost of the action needed to provide accessibility or compatibility; the overall resources of the telecommunications manufacturer, including financial resources, technical expertise, component supply sources, equipment, or personnel; the overall financial resources of any parent corporation or entity, to the extent such resources are available to the telecommunications manufacturer; and, whether the accessibility solution results in a fundamental alteration in the nature of the product.

C201.3 Access to Functionality. Telecommunications equipment manufacturers shall ensure that ICT is accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities by providing direct access to all functionality of ICT. Where telecommunications equipment manufacturers can demonstrate that it is not readily achievable for ICT to provide direct access to all functionality, ICT shall support the use of assistive technology and specialized customer premises equipment where readily achievable.

Advisory C201.3 Access to Functionality. Built-in direct access to functionality is required when readily achievable. Otherwise, compatibility with assistive technology and specialized customer premises equipment is required when readily achievable.

C201.4 Prohibited Reduction of Accessibility, Usability, and Compatibility. No change shall be undertaken that decreases, or has the effect of decreasing, the net accessibility, usability, or compatibility of ICT.

EXCEPTION: Discontinuation of a product shall not be prohibited.

C201.5 Design, Development, and Fabrication. Telecommunications equipment manufacturers shall evaluate the accessibility, usability, and interoperability of ICT during its product design, development, and fabrication.

Advisory C201.5 Design, Development, and Fabrication. Conducting market research, and holding product design testing and trials that include individuals with disabilities, are examples of ways to meet this requirement.

C202 Functional Performance Criteria

C202.1 General. Where the requirements in Chapters 4 and 5 do not address one or more features of ICT, the features not addressed shall conform to the Functional Performance Criteria specified in Chapter 3.

C203 Electronic Content

C203.1 General. Regardless of the medium or the method of transmission and storage, electronic content integral to the use of ICT shall conform to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements specified for Web pages in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1) or ISO 14289-1 (PDF/UA-1) (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

Advisory C203.1 General. WCAG is written to be technology neutral. While oriented towards web pages which are defined as being delivered using HTTP, the WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements can be applied to all electronic content. Guidance can be found at http://www.w3.org/TR/wcag2ict.

C204 Hardware

C204.1 General. Where components of ICT are hardware, and transmit information or have a user interface, those components shall conform to applicable requirements in Chapter 4.

EXCEPTION: Components of ICT shall not be required to conform to 402, 407.11, 407.12, 408, and 409.

C205 Software

C205.1 General. Where components of ICT are software and transmit information or have a user interface, those components shall conform to C205 and applicable requirements in Chapter 5.

C205.2 WCAG Conformance. User interface components and content of platforms and applications shall conform to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements specified for Web pages in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

Advisory C205.2 WCAG Conformance. WCAG is written to be technology neutral. While oriented towards web pages which are defined as being delivered using HTTP, the WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements can be applied to non-web documents, user interface components, and the content of platforms and applications. Guidance can be found at: http://www.w3.org/TR/wcag2ict.

C206 Support Documentation and Services

C206.1 General. Where support documentation and services are provided for ICT, telecommunications equipment manufacturers shall provide such documentation and services in conformance with Chapter 6, upon request and at no additional charge.

Appendix C to Part 1194 – Functional Performance Criteria and Technical Requirements

CHAPTER 3: FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

301 General

301.1 Scope. The requirements of Chapter 3 shall apply to ICT where required by 508 Chapter 2 (Scoping Requirements), 255 Chapter 2 (Scoping Requirements), and where otherwise referenced in any other chapter of the 508 Standards or 255 Guidelines.

302 Functional Performance Criteria

302.1 Without Vision. Where a visual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that does not require user vision.

302.2 With Limited Vision. Where a visual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that magnifies, one mode that reduces the field of vision required, and one mode that allows user control of contrast.

302.3 Without Perception of Color. Where a visual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that does not require user perception of color.

302.4 Without Hearing. Where an auditory mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that does not require user hearing.

302.5 With Limited Hearing. Where an auditory mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that improves clarity, one mode that reduces background noise, and one mode that allows user control of volume.

302.6 Without Speech. Where a spoken mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that does not require user speech.

302.7 With Limited Manipulation. Where a manual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that does not require fine motor control or operation of more than one control at the same time.

302.8 With Limited Reach and Strength. Where a manual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that is operable with limited reach and limited strength.

CHAPTER 4: HARDWARE

401 General

401.1 Scope. The requirements of Chapter 4 shall apply to ICT that is hardware where required by 508 Chapter 2 (Scoping Requirements), 255 Chapter 2 (Scoping Requirements), and where otherwise referenced in any other chapter of the 508 Standards or 255 Guidelines.

EXCEPTION: Hardware that is assistive technology shall not be required to conform to the requirements of this chapter.

402 Closed Functionality

402.1 General. Except for personal headsets and other audio couplers, closed functionality of ICT shall be operable without requiring the user to attach or install assistive technology and shall conform to 402.

Advisory 402.1 General. Self-service machines, information kiosks, set-top boxes, and devices like most copiers, fax machines, and calculators have closed functionality because, by design, these products preclude the user from adding peripherals or software. ICT also may have closed functionality in practice even though the manufacturer did not design or develop it to be closed. Computers with security restrictions that prevent end users from adjusting settings or adding assistive technology have closed functionality.

402.2 Speech-Output Enabled. ICT with a display screen shall be speech-output enabled. Operating instructions and orientation, visible transaction prompts, user input verification, error messages, and all displayed information for full use shall be accessible to, and independently usable by, individuals with vision impairments. Speech output shall be delivered through a mechanism that is readily available to all users, including, but not limited to, an industry standard connector or a telephone handset. Speech shall be recorded or digitized human, or synthesized. Speech output shall be coordinated with information displayed on the screen.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Audible tones shall be permitted instead of speech where the content of user input is not displayed as entered for security purposes, including, but not limited to, asterisks representing personal identification numbers.

2. Advertisements and other similar information shall not be required to be audible unless conveying information necessary for the transaction being conducted.

402.2.1 User Control. Speech output for any single function shall be automatically interrupted when a transaction is selected. Speech output shall be capable of being repeated and paused.

402.2.2 Braille Instructions. Where speech output is required by 402.2, braille instructions for initiating the speech mode of operation shall be provided. Braille shall conform to 36 CFR Part 1191, Appendix D, Section 703.3.

402.3 Volume. ICT that delivers sound, including speech required by 402.2, shall provide volume control and output amplification conforming to 402.3.

EXCEPTION: ICT conforming to 410.2 shall not be required to conform to 402.3.

402.3.1 Private Listening. Where ICT provides private listening, it shall provide a mode of operation for controlling the volume and a means for effective magnetic wireless coupling to hearing technologies.

Advisory 402.3.1 Private Listening. A handset that is hearing aid compatible and has a volume control would meet the requirements of this section.

402.3.2 Non-private Listening. Where ICT provides non-private listening, incremental volume control shall be provided with output amplification up to a level of at least 65 dB. Where the ambient noise level of the environment is above 45 dB, a volume gain of at least 20 dB above the ambient level shall be user selectable. A function shall be provided to automatically reset the volume to the default level after every use.

402.4 Characters. At least one mode of characters displayed on the screen shall be in a sans serif font. Where ICT does not provide a screen enlargement feature, characters shall be 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) high minimum based on the uppercase letter “I”. Characters shall contrast with their background with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.

403 Biometrics

403.1 General. Biometrics shall not be the only means for user identification or control.

EXCEPTION: Where at least two biometric options that use different biological characteristics are provided, ICT shall be permitted to use biometrics as the only means for user identification or control.

Advisory 403.1 General - Exception. Biometrics use biological characteristics for user identification or control. Examples include: fingerprints, retinal or iris patterns, voice, facial features, and blood vessel patterns in the hand. Biometrics restricted to a single biological characteristic pose a significant barrier to individuals who do not possess that biological characteristic. Biometric methods based on dissimilar biological characteristics increase the likelihood that individuals possess at least one of the specified characteristics. Examples of biometrics that rely upon dissimilar biological characteristics are voice recognition and face recognition. Examples of biometrics that rely upon similar biological characteristics are scans that use either thumb or index finger prints. Allowing use of an identification card for authentication is an example of a non-biometric alternative.

404 Preservation of Information Provided for Accessibility

404.1 General. ICT that transmits or converts information or communication shall not remove non-proprietary information provided for accessibility or shall restore it upon delivery.

Advisory 404.1 General. This provision applies to conversion techniques, such as encoding, signal compression, and format transformation. Examples of ICT that might encode, compress, or transform information include firewalls, routers, and gateways. This provision does not require the addition or translation of information, simply its preservation. For example, this provision would not require an agency to change voice mail into text.

405 Flashing

405.1 General. Where ICT emits lights in flashes, there shall be no more than three flashes in any one-second period.

EXCEPTION: Flashes that do not exceed the general flash and red flash thresholds defined in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1) are not required to conform to 405.

406 Standard Connections

406.1 General. Where data connections used for input and output are provided, at least one of each type of connection shall conform to industry standard non-proprietary formats.

Advisory 406.1 General. The intent of this provision is to ensure compatibility with assistive technology by requiring the use of standard connections on ICT. Examples of data connections include expansion slots, ports, and connectors for cables. Industry standard non-proprietary formats include wireless connections to ICT, such as infrared (IR) and Bluetooth. Power cord connections are not data connections used for input and output.

407 Operable Parts

407.1 General. Where provided, operable parts of ICT shall conform to 407.

407.2 Contrast. Where provided, keys and controls shall contrast visually from background surfaces. Characters and symbols shall contrast visually from background surfaces with either light characters or symbols on a dark background or dark characters or symbols on a light background.

407.3 Tactilely Discernible. At least one tactilely discernible input control shall be provided for each function and shall conform to 407.3.

EXCEPTION: Devices for personal use with input controls that are audibly discernable without activation and operable by touch shall not be required to be tactilely discernible.

407.3.1 Identification. Input controls shall be tactilely discernible without activation and operable by touch. Where provided, key surfaces outside active areas of the display screen shall be raised above surrounding surfaces.

407.3.2 Alphabetic Keys. Where provided, individual alphabetic keys shall be arranged in a QWERTY keyboard layout and the “F” and “J” keys shall be tactilely distinct from the other keys. Where the ICT provides an alphabetic overlay on numeric keys, the relationships between letters and digits shall conform to ITU-T Recommendation E.161 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

407.3.3 Numeric Keys. Where provided, numeric keys shall be arranged in a 12-key ascending or descending keypad layout. The number five key shall be tactilely distinct from the other keys.

Advisory 407.3.3 Numeric Keys. A telephone keypad and a keypad on a computer keyboard differ in one significant feature, ascending versus descending numerical order of the layout. Some keypads will have a double width zero key and decimal key instead of the asterisk and pound signs found on a telephone keypad. These examples conform to this provision.

407.4 Key Repeat. Where a keyboard with key repeat is provided, the delay before the key repeat feature is activated shall be fixed at, or adjustable to, 2 seconds minimum.

407.5 Timed Response. Where a timed response is required, the user shall be alerted visually, as well as by touch or sound, and shall be given the opportunity to indicate that more time is needed.

407.6 Status Indicators. Status indicators, including all locking or toggle controls or keys (e.g., Caps Lock and Num Lock keys), shall be discernible visually and by touch or sound.

407.7 Color. Color coding shall not be used as the only means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.

407.8 Audio Signaling. Audio signaling shall not be used as the only means of conveying information, indicating an action, or prompting a response.

407.9 Operation. At least one mode of operation shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate operable parts shall be 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

407.10 Privacy. The same degree of privacy of input and output shall be provided to all individuals. When speech output required by 402.2 is enabled, the screen shall not blank automatically.

Advisory 407.10 Privacy. Under most circumstances, it is not necessary to blank the screen when the audio output is in use in order to ensure users with disabilities have a comparable degree of privacy. However, where screen blanking would be useful, the option to blank the screen must be under the control of the user.

407.11 Keys, Tickets, and Fare Cards. Where keys, tickets, or fare cards are provided, keys, tickets, and fare cards shall have an orientation that is tactilely discernible if orientation is important to further use of the key, ticket, or fare card.

Advisory 407.11 Keys, Tickets, and Fare Cards. Examples of keys include electronic machine-readable pass cards and identification badges. Examples of ways to make orientation tactilely discernible include braille labels, off-center holes, and a notched corner.

407.12 Reach Height. At least one of each type of operable part of stationary ICT shall be at a height conforming to 407.12.2 or 407.12.3 according to its position established in 407.12.1 for a side reach or a forward reach.

Advisory 407.12 Reach Height. This provision allows operable parts of ICT to be designed to be reached by a person seated in a wheelchair from a forward or side position, depending upon the design. For additional information on forward and side reaches, see 28 CFR Part 1191 Appendix D.

407.12.1 Vertical Reference Plane. Operable parts shall be positioned for a side reach or a forward reach determined with respect to a vertical reference plane. The vertical reference plane shall be located in conformance to 407.12.2 or 407.12.3.

407.12.1.1 Vertical Plane for Side Reach. Where a side reach is provided, the vertical reference plane shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum.

407.12.1.2 Vertical Plane for Forward Reach. Where a forward reach is provided, the vertical reference plane shall be 30 inches (760 mm) long minimum.

Figure 407.12.1
Three plan drawings show a person using a wheelchair making a parallel approach to a 48 inch (1220 mm) minimum long vertical plane with this vertical plane centered on the control area of the equipment; a forward approach to a 30 inch (760 mm) minimum long vertical plane centered on the control area of the equipment; and a forward approach to a 30 inch (760 mm) minimum long vertical plane centered on the control area of the equipment with the users knees and toes sliding partially under the equipment.

407.12.2 Side Reach. Operable parts of ICT providing a side reach shall conform to 407.12.2.1 or 407.12.2.2. The vertical reference plane shall be centered on the operable part and placed at the leading edge of the maximum protrusion of the ICT within the length of the vertical reference plane. Where a side reach requires a reach over a portion of the ICT, the height of that portion of the ICT shall be 34 inches (865 mm) maximum.

407.12.2.1 Unobstructed Side Reach. Where the operable part is located 10 inches (255 mm) or less beyond the vertical reference plane, the operable part shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) high maximum and 15 inches (380 mm) high minimum above the floor.

Figure 407.12.2.1
Elevation drawing shows a frontal view of a person using a wheelchair making a side reach past a vertical reference plane over an obstruction 34 inches (865 mm)  maximum high.  The obstruction depth is 10 inches (255 mm) maximum.  The vertical reach range is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum to 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum.

407.12.2.2 Obstructed Side Reach. Where the operable part is located more than 10 inches (255 mm), but not more than 24 inches (610 mm), beyond the vertical reference plane, the height of the operable part shall be 46 inches (1170 mm) high maximum and 15 inches (380 mm) high minimum above the floor. The operable part shall not be located more than 24 inches (610 mm) beyond the vertical reference plane.

Figure 407.12.2.2
Elevation drawing shows a frontal view of a person using a wheelchair making a side reach past a vertical reference plane over an obstruction depth of 10 inches to 24 inches maximum (255 to 610 mm) and 34 inches (865 mm) high maximum.  The vertical reach range is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum to 46 inches (1170 mm) maximum.

407.12.3 Forward Reach. Operable parts of ICT providing a forward reach shall conform to 407.12.3.1 or 407.12.3.2. The vertical reference plane shall be centered, and intersect with, the operable part. Where a forward reach allows a reach over a portion of the ICT, the height of that portion of the ICT shall be 34 inches (865 mm) maximum.

407.12.3.1 Unobstructed Forward Reach. Where the operable part is located at the leading edge of the maximum protrusion within the length of the vertical reference plane of the ICT, the operable part shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) high maximum and 15 inches (380 mm) high minimum above the floor.

Figure 407.12.3.1
Elevation drawing shows a side view of a person using a wheelchair reaching forward toward a vertical reference plane and a control area.  The lowest vertical reach point is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and the highest is 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum.

407.12.3.2 Obstructed Forward Reach. Where the operable part is located beyond the leading edge of the maximum protrusion within the length of the vertical reference plane, the operable part shall conform to 407.12.3.2. The maximum allowable forward reach to an operable part shall be 25 inches (635 mm).

Figure 407.12.3.2
Elevation drawing shows a side view of a person using a wheelchair reaching forward over an obstruction toward a vertical reference plane and a control area.  The height of the obstruction is 34 inches (865 mm) maximum. The knee and toe clearance under the obstruction is 27 inches (685 mm) high minimum and 25 inches (635 mm) maximum deep.

407.12.3.2.1 Height. The height of the operable part shall conform to Table 407.12.3.2.1.

Table 407.12.3.2.1 Operable Part Height
Reach DepthOperable Part Height
Less than 20 inches (510 mm) 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum
20 inches (510 mm) to 25 inches (635 mm) 44 inches (1120 mm) maximum
Figure 407.12.3.2.1
Two elevation drawings are shown, the left drawing shows a person seated in a wheelchair reaching to a vertical plane to a point on a control area above a portion of equipment which is less than 20 inches (510 mm) deep.  The maximum reach height is 48 inches (1220 mm).  In the right drawing, the obstruction is at least 20 inches (510 mm) to 25 inches (635 mm) the maximum depth.  The maximum reach height is 44 inches (1120 mm).

407.12.3.2.2 Knee and Toe Space. Knee and toe space under ICT shall be 27 inches (685 mm) high minimum, 25 inches (635 mm) deep maximum, and 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum and shall be clear of obstructions.

EXCEPTIONS:1. Toe space shall be permitted to provide a clear height of 9 inches (230 mm) minimum above the floor and a clear depth of 6 inches (150 mm) maximum from the vertical reference plane toward the leading edge of the ICT.

2. At a depth of 6 inches (150 mm) maximum from the vertical reference plane toward the leading edge of the ICT, space between 9 inches (230 mm) and 27 inches (685 mm) minimum above the floor shall be permitted to reduce at a rate of 1 inch (25 mm) in depth for every 6 inches (150 mm) in height.

Figure 407.12.3.2.2
Elevation drawing shows a side view of a person using a wheelchair reaching forward over an obstruction toward a vertical reference plane and a control area.  The height of the obstruction is 34 inches (865 mm) maximum. The knee and toe clearance under the obstruction is 27 inches (685 mm) high minimum and 25 inches (635 mm) maximum deep.
Figure 407.12.3.2.2 Exception 1
Elevation drawing shows a side view of a person using a wheelchair reaching forward over an obstruction toward a vertical reference plane and a control area.  The height of the obstruction is 34 inches (865 mm) maximum.  The toe clearance under the obstruction is 9 inches (230 mm) high and 6 inches (150 mm) maximum deep.
Figure 407.12.3.2.2 Exception 2
Elevation drawing shows a side view of a person using a wheelchair reaching forward over an obstruction toward a vertical reference plane and a control area.  The height of the obstruction is 34 inches (865 mm) maximum. A partial knee clearance under the obstruction defines an area that is between 6 inches (150 mm) and 9 inches (230 mm) deep measured from the vertical plane and is 27 inches (685 mm) high minimum above the floor which is permitted to reduce at a rate of 1 inch (25 mm) in depth for every 6 inches (150 mm) in height.
Figure 407.12.3.2.2 with both Exceptions applied
Elevation drawing shows a side view of a person using a wheelchair reaching forward over an obstruction toward a vertical reference plane and a control area.  The height of the obstruction is 34 inches (865 mm) maximum.  Toe clearance is shown extending for a maximum depth of 6 inches (150 mm) out from the vertical reference plane at a height of 9 inches (230 mm) minimum.  Knee clearance is 27 inches (685 mm) high minimum above the floor or ground for a minimum depth of 8 inches (205 mm), measured from the leading edge of the element.  The vertical clearance decreases beyond this depth to a height of 9 inches (230 mm) minimum at depth of more than 6 inches (150 mm) to 19 inches (485 mm) maximum measured from the leading edge of the element.

408 Display Screens

408.1 General. Where stationary ICT provides one or more display screens, at least one of each type of display screen shall be visible from a point located 40 inches (1015 mm) above the floor space where the display screen is viewed.

409 Transactional Outputs

409.1 General. Where transactional outputs are provided by ICT with speech output, the speech output shall audibly provide all information necessary to complete or verify a transaction.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Machine location, date and time of transaction, customer account number, and the machine identifier shall not be required to be audible.

2. Duplicative information shall not be required to be repeated where such information has already been presented audibly.

3. Itineraries, maps, checks, and other visual images shall not be required to be audible.

Advisory 409.1 General. The information necessary to complete or verify a transaction depends on the nature of the transaction and the type of machine. Receipts, tickets, and similar transactional output usually are printed, but this is not always the case. For example, an event ticket might be transferred to a smart phone or PDA. Regardless of the delivery method, the ICT must convey audibly the information necessary to complete and verify a transaction.

410 ICT with Two-Way Voice Communication

410.1 General. ICT that provides two-way voice communication shall conform to 410.

410.2 Volume Gain. Volume gain shall be provided and shall conform to 47 CFR 68.317.

410.3 Magnetic Coupling. Where ICT delivers output by an audio transducer that is typically held up to the ear, ICT shall provide a means for effective magnetic wireless coupling to hearing technologies, such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive listening devices.

410.4 Minimize Interference. ICT shall reduce interference with hearing technologies to the lowest possible level and shall conform to 410.4.

410.4.1 Wireless Handsets. ICT in the form of wireless handsets shall conform to ANSI/IEEE C63.19-2011 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

410.4.2 Digital Wireline. ICT in the form of digital wireline devices shall conform to TIA 1083 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

410.5 Digital Encoding of Speech. ICT shall transmit and receive speech that is digitally encoded in the manner specified by ITU-T Recommendation G.722 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1) for encoding and storing audio information.

EXCEPTION: Where ICT is a closed system, conformance to standards other than ITU-T Recommendation G.722 shall be permitted where equivalent or better acoustic performance is provided and where conversion to ITU-T Recommendation G.722 at the borders of the closed system is supported.

Advisory 410.5 Digital Encoding of Speech - Exception. One example of a closed system is a telephone network that enables calls to be placed between buildings and departments under the control of one entity, but is not used to receive or make outside calls.

410.6 Real-Time Text Functionality. Where ICT provides real-time voice communication, ICT shall support real-time text functionality and shall conform to 410.6.

410.6.1 Display of Real-Time Text. Where provided, multi-line displays shall be compatible with real-time text systems used on the network.

410.6.2 Text Generation. Where provided, features capable of text generation shall be compatible with real-time text systems used on the network.

410.6.3 Interoperability. Where ICT interoperates outside of a closed system of which it is a part, or where ICT connects to other systems, ICT shall conform to 410.6.3.1 or 410.6.3.2.

410.6.3.1 PSTN. Where ICT interoperates with the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), real-time text shall conform to TIA 825-A (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

410.6.3.2 VoIP Using SIP. Where ICT interoperates with Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) products or systems using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), real-time text shall conform to RFC 4103 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

410.6.4 Voice Mail, Auto-Attendant, and IVR Compatibility. Where provided, voice mail, auto-attendant, and interactive voice response telecommunications systems shall be compatible with real-time text that conforms to 410.6.3.

410.6.5 HCO and VCO Support. Real-time voice communication shall permit users to intermix speech with the use of real-time text and shall support modes that are compatible with Hearing Carry Over (HCO) and Voice Carry Over (VCO).

Advisory 410.6.5 HCO and VCO Support. This provision supports the use of simultaneous text and speech in two-way communication, including telecommunications relay service. HCO allows a person with a speech disability to type their side of a conversation which is read by the other party and to listen directly to their voice. VCO allows a person who is deaf or hard of hearing to read conversation that is typed by the other party and to speak directly to them. HCO and VCO may be facilitated by a telecommunications relay service communication assistant.

410.7 Caller ID. Where provided, caller identification and similar telecommunications functions shall be visible and audible.

Advisory 410.7 Caller ID. Examples of functions addressed by this requirement include messages waiting, duration of call in progress, dialing directory, wireless signal strength, and battery power.

410.8 Video Communication. Where ICT provides real-time video functionality, the quality of the video shall be sufficient to support communication using sign language.

411 Closed Caption Processing Technologies

411.1 General. Where ICT displays or processes video with synchronized audio, ICT shall conform to 411.1.1 or 411.1.2.

411.1.1 Decoding of Closed Captions. Players and displays shall decode closed caption data and support display of captions.

411.1.2 Pass-Through of Closed Caption Data. Cabling and ancillary equipment shall pass through caption data.

412 Audio Description Processing Technology

412.1 General. Where ICT displays or processes video with synchronized audio, ICT shall provide a mode of operation that plays associated audio description.

412.1.1 Digital Television Tuners. Where audio description is played through digital television tuners, the tuners shall conform to ATSC A/53 Digital Television Standard, Part 5 (2010) (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1). Digital television tuners shall provide processing of audio description when encoded as a Visually Impaired (VI) associated audio service that is provided as a complete program mix containing audio description according to the ATSC A/53 standard.

413 User Controls for Captions and Audio Description

413.1 General. Where ICT displays video with synchronized audio, ICT shall provide user controls for closed captions and audio description conforming to 413.1.

EXCEPTION: Devices for personal use where closed captions and audio description can be enabled through system-wide platform settings shall not be required to conform to 413.1.

413.1.1 Caption Controls. ICT shall provide user controls for the selection of captions in at least one location that is comparable in prominence to the location of the user controls for volume.

413.1.2 Audio Description Controls. ICT shall provide user controls for the selection of audio description in at least one location that is comparable in prominence to the location of the user controls for program selection.

CHAPTER 5: SOFTWARE

501 General

501.1 Scope. The requirements of Chapter 5 shall apply to ICT software and applications where required by 508 Chapter 2 (Scoping Requirements), 255 Chapter 2 (Scoping Requirements), and where otherwise referenced in any other chapter of the 508 Standards or 255 Guidelines.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Web applications that conform to all Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and all Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1) shall not be required to conform to 502 and 503.

2. Software that is assistive technology and that supports the accessibility services of the platform shall not be required to conform to the requirements in this chapter.

Advisory 501.1 Scope. Software includes platforms, applications, and firmware. Firmware is read-only memory (ROM) based software that is sometimes distinguished from software and hardware. Examples of platforms are: desktop operating systems; embedded operating systems, including mobile; web browsers; plug-ins to web browsers that render a particular media or format; and sets of components that allow other applications to execute, such as applications which support macros or scripting. Applications may be web-based or client-side software. Examples of applications are: email clients; word processors; help desk systems; content management systems; e-learning courseware; and terminal emulation.

502 Interoperability with Assistive Technology

502.1 General. Platforms, software tools provided by the platform developer, and applications, shall conform to 502.

EXCEPTION: Platforms and applications that have closed functionality and that conform to 402 shall not be required to conform to 502.

502.2 Documented Accessibility Features. Platforms and applications shall conform to 502.2.

502.2.1 User Control of Accessibility Features. Platforms shall provide user control over platform features that are defined in the platform documentation as accessibility features.

502.2.2 No Disruption of Accessibility Features. Applications shall not disrupt platform features that are defined in the platform documentation as accessibility features.

502.3 Accessibility Services. Platforms and software tools provided by the platform developer shall provide a documented set of accessibility services that support applications running on the platform to interoperate withassistive technology and shall conform to 502.3. Applications that are also platforms shall expose the underlying platform accessibility services or implement other documented accessibility services.

502.3.1 Object Information. The object role, state(s), boundary, name, and description shall be programmatically determinable. States that can be set by the user shall be capable of being set programmatically, including through assistive technology.

502.3.2 Row, Column, and Headers. If an object is in a table, the occupied rows and columns, and any headers associated with those rows or columns, shall be programmatically determinable.

502.3.3 Values. Any current value(s), and any set or range of allowable values associated with an object, shall be programmatically determinable. Values that can be set by the user shall be capable of being set programmatically, including through assistive technology.

502.3.4 Label Relationships. Any relationship that a component has as a label for another component, or of being labeled by another component, shall be programmatically determinable.

502.3.5 Hierarchical Relationships. Any hierarchical (parent-child) relationship that a component has as a container for, or being contained by, another component shall be programmatically determinable.

502.3.6 Text. The content of text objects, text attributes, and the boundary of text rendered to the screen, shall be programmatically determinable. Text that can be set by the user shall be capable of being set programmatically, including through assistive technology.

502.3.7 Actions. A list of all actions that can be executed on an object shall be programmatically determinable. Applications shall allow assistive technology to programmatically execute available actions on objects.

502.3.8 Focus Cursor. Applications shall expose information and mechanisms necessary to track and modify focus, text insertion point, and selection attributes of user interface components.

502.3.9 Event Notification. Notification of events relevant to user interactions, including but not limited to, changes in the component’s state(s), value, name, description, or boundary, shall be available to assistive technology.

502.4 Platform Accessibility Features. Platforms and platform software shall conform to the requirements in ANSI/HFES 200.2, Human Factors Engineering of Software User Interfaces — Part 2: Accessibility (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1) listed below:

1. Section 9.3.3 Enable sequential entry of multiple (chorded) keystrokes.
2. Section 9.3.4 Provide adjustment of delay before key acceptance.
3. Section 9.3.5 Provide adjustment of same-key double-strike acceptance.
4. Section 10.6.7 Allow users to choose visual alternative for audio output.
5. Section 10.6.8 Synchronize audio equivalents for visual events.
6. Section 10.6.9 Provide speech output services.
7. Section 10.7.1 Display any captions provided.

503 Applications

503.1 General. Applications shall conform to 503.

503.2 User Preferences. Applications shall permit user preferences from platform settings for color, contrast, font type, font size, and focus cursor.

Advisory 503.2 User Preferences. This provision applies to applications that are platforms. One example of an application that is also a platform is a web browser.

EXCEPTION: Applications that are designed to be isolated from their underlying platforms, including Web applications, shall not be required to conform to 503.2.

Advisory 503.2 User Preferences - Exception. One example of an application that is designed to be isolated from its underlying platform is a media player that is restricted from having access to the desktop operating system.

503.3 Alternative User Interfaces. Where an application provides an alternative user interface that functions as assistive technology, the application shall use platform and other industry standard accessibility services.

503.4 User Controls for Captions and Audio Description. Where ICT displays video with synchronized audio, ICT shall provide user controls for closed captions and audio description conforming to 503.4.

503.4.1 Caption Controls. Where user controls are provided for volume adjustment, ICT shall provide user controls for the selection of captions at the same menu level as the user controls for volume or program selection.

503.4.2 Audio Description Controls. Where user controls are provided for program selection, ICT shall provide user controls for the selection of audio description at the same menu level as the user controls for volume or program selection.

504 Authoring Tools

504.1 General. Where an application is an authoring tool, the application shall conform to 504 to the extent that information required for accessibility is supported by the destination format.

Advisory 504.1 General. One example of an authoring tool is a web application that allows users to create new web pages. Another example is an application for editing video. Authoring tools can also be used to create and publish content for use with telecommunications products or services. One example of a telecommunications authoring tool is an interactive voice response system (IVR) that includes software for the creation of content used to populate menu choices. These requirements for authoring tools enable this content to be accessible.

504.2 Content Creation or Editing. Authoring tools shall provide a mode of operation to create or edit content that conforms to all Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and all Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1) for all features and formats supported by the authoring tool. Authoring tools shall permit authors the option of overriding information required for accessibility.

Advisory 504.2 Content Creation or Editing. Content is the information and sensory experience to be communicated to the user through software, including code or markup that defines the content’s structure, presentation, and interactions.

EXCEPTION: Authoring tools shall not be required to conform to 504.2 when used to directly edit plain text source code.

Advisory 504.2 Content Creation or Editing - Exception. Examples of authoring tools that are only plain text editors include Emacs and Windows Notepad. This exception also applies to more sophisticated tools when they are used in plain text mode.

504.2.1 Preservation of Information Provided for Accessibility in Format Conversion. Authoring tools shall, when converting content from one format to another or saving content in multiple formats, preserve the information required for accessibility to the extent that the information is supported by the destination format.

Advisory 504.2.1 Preservation of Information Provided for Accessibility in Format Conversion. One example of how accessibility information is preserved occurs when HTML is exported from a word processor. In this case, alternative text associated with embedded images follows the native word processing format to the HTML source code. By controlling the accessibility information in the destination format, the author can ensure consistent use of that information in both formats.

504.3 Prompts. Authoring tools shall provide a mode of operation that prompts authors to create content that conforms to all Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and all Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1). Authoring tools shall provide the option for prompts during initial content creation or when the content is saved.

Advisory 504.3 Prompts. Prompts do not need to be provided for every component in the content. Intrusive or overused prompts can decrease usability. Examples of prompts that are activated when the content is near completion are automated checks and wizards.

504.4 Templates. Where templates are provided, templates allowing content creation that conforms to all Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and all Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1) shall be provided for a range of template uses.

CHAPTER 6: SUPPORT DOCUMENTATION AND SERVICES

601 General

601.1 Scope. The technical requirements in Chapter 6 shall apply to ICT support documentation and services where required by 508 Chapter 2 (Scoping Requirements), 255 Chapter 2 (Scoping Requirements), and where otherwise referenced in any other chapter of the 508 Standards or 255 Guidelines.

602 Support Documentation

602.1 General. Documentation that supports the use of ICT shall conform to 602.

Advisory 602.1 General. Examples of documentation that supports ICT are installation guides, user guides, and manuals that describe the features of a product and how it is used. Documentation may take the form of stand-alone documents or be integrated into products as on-line or context-sensitive help.

602.2 Accessibility and Compatibility Features. Documentation shall list and explain how to use the accessibility and compatibility features required by Chapters 4 and 5. Documentation shall include accessibility features that are built-in and accessibility features that provide compatibility with assistive technology.

Advisory 602.2 Accessibility and Compatibility Features. One example of an accessibility feature is the ability to access commands and navigate using the keyboard. Voice recognition software, screen readers, and alternative keyboards rely upon keyboard control for accessible and efficient operation. Keyboard navigation includes support for the following: cursor keys (up, down, left and right arrows), tab and shift-tab (to cycle through fields), enter or spacebar (to select or activate), hot keys, macros, and other keyboard acceleration mechanisms.

Where ICT components are designed to be part of an integrated system, this provision requires that the documentation explains how to configure the system to support accessibility. For example, the documentation for a DVD player and multimedia projector is required to explain how to configure the DVD player and projector to support the display of closed captions.

602.3 Electronic Support Documentation. Documentation in electronic format, including Web-based self-service support, shall conform to all Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and all Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1), or ISO 14289-1 (PDF/UA-1) (incorporated by reference in Chapter 1).

602.4 Alternate Formats for Non-electronic Support Documentation. Alternate formats usable by individuals who are blind or have low vision shall be provided upon request for support documentation in non-electronic formats.

Advisory 602.4 Alternate Formats for Non-electronic Support Documentation. Examples of alternate formats are electronic versions of hard copy, braille, large print and audio files. None of the alternate formats listed are accessible to all users who are blind or have low vision.

603 Support Services

603.1 General. ICT support services including, but not limited to, help desks, call centers, training services, and automated self-service technical support, shall conform to 603.

603.2 Information on Accessibility and Compatibility Features. ICT support services shall include information on the accessibility and compatibility features required by 602.2.

Advisory 603.2 Information on Accessibility and Compatibility Features. A best practice is for ICT support services to provide training programs about the following topics: accessibility requirements for individuals with disabilities; methods of communication used by individuals with disabilities; assistive technology commonly used with ICT products; designing for accessibility; solutions for accessibility and compatibility of ICT with assistive technology; accessible document creation and remediation; ICT product assessment; user testing; the use of people-first language; and sensitivity training.

603.3 Accommodation of Communication Needs. Support services shall be provided directly to the user or through a referral to a point of contact. Such ICT support services shall accommodate the communication needs of individuals with disabilities.

Advisory 603.3 Accommodation of Communication Needs. The Federal Communications Commission maintains a list of contact information for telecommunications service providers and manufacturers of telecommunications products that can be useful when support services are provided through a referral. Examples of accommodations are qualified sign language interpreters, assistive listening systems, TTYs, real time captioning, and telecommunications relay services. Telecommunication relay services can be TTY, speech-to-speech, and video relay service.

A best practice is for help desk and other ICT support services to use a variety of communication technologies. Examples of such communication technologies include Internet posting (such as message boards and website blogs), telephones, email, fax, postal mail, texting, and instant messaging.