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CHAPTER 8:  NATIONAL COSTS FOR OFFICE BUILDINGS, HOTELS, HOSPITALS AND NURSING HOMES, AND GOVERMENT HOUSING

 

8.0  Introduction

 

This chapter estimates the national costs of revisions for the construction of office buildings, hotels, hospitals and nursing homes, and Federal, State, and local government housing.   A preliminary analysis of the revisions that have monetary impacts in Chapter 7 shows that the new construction and alterations of these facilities will be affected by many of the revisions, and they are likely to experience relatively higher costs than other facilities.  This chapter also addresses whether the final revised guidelines are an economically significant regulatory action. 

 

Data is presented on construction projects for office buildings, hotels, hospitals and nursing homes, and Federal, State, and local government housing from: 

 

 

 

 

The Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin includes alteration projects that cost $100,000 or more.  The Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin does not provide separate data on alteration projects.  The Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place also includes alteration work.  Alteration work accounted for 38 percent of office building construction work; 23 percent of hotel construction work; 54 percent of hospital construction work; and 65 percent of Federal, State, and local government residential construction work installed in 2002.  The assessment treats alteration projects the same as new construction projects, and assumes that the entire facility is altered and will be affected by revisions.  However, if only a portion of an existing facility is altered, and the altered elements and spaces are not affected by the revisions, the assessment will overstate the national costs.

 

The average size and value of construction projects reported in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin are compared to the data on existing facilities and new facilities. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assumptions are made about the percentage of facilities that will be affected by each revision.  The assumptions are based on discussions with industry sources.  The additional costs imposed by the revisions on newly constructed facilities are estimated and compared to the total construction costs for individual facilities.  The national costs of the revisions for each type of facility are estimated based on the number of facilities that will be affected by the revisions.

 

As discussed in Chapter 2, the national costs of the revisions are measured against the current guidelines and the International Building Code.  The current guidelines are the upper bound of the range of national costs, and assume that the facilities are not required to also comply with equivalent requirements in the International Building Code.  The International Building Code is the lower bound of the range of national costs, and assumes that the facilities are required to also comply with equivalent requirements in the International Building Code.[188]  The International Building Code has been adopted in statewide by 28 States, and by local governments in another 15 States.  The actual national costs will be between the lower and upper bound of the range. 

8.1  Office Buildings

 

8.1.1    Office Building Data

 

The Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin reports that 23,100 construction projects for private office buildings were started in 2002; and 958 projects for government office buildings were started in 2002.  Private office building construction projects totaled 150 million square feet valued at $19.0 billion (average project size: 6,500 sq. ft.; average project value: $825,000).  Government office building construction projects totaled 10 million square feet valued at $2.6 billion (average project size: 10,400 sq. ft.; average project value: $2.6 million).[189]

 

The Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place reports that the value of private and government office building construction work installed during 2002 was $44.9 billion.  New construction accounted for 62 percent of the work ($27.7 billion), and additions and alterations accounted for 38 percent of the work ($17.2 billion).

 

Cushman & Wakefield reports that in the second quarter of 2003 there was19 million square feet of new office building space under construction in downtown areas, and 19 million square feet of new office building space under construction in suburban areas.[190]

 

The Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) International conducts an annual survey of existing office buildings.  The 2003 BOMA Experience Exchange Report included over 3,000 office buildings in the United States.  The average size of private office buildings in downtown areas is 381,477 square feet (754 surveyed) and in suburban areas is 119,410 square feet (1,776 surveyed).  The average size of government office buildings in downtown areas is 178,993 square feet (540 surveyed) and in suburban areas is 38,319 square feet (69 surveyed). 

 

Since the average sizes of the construction projects reported in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin (6,500 sq. ft. for private office buildings; 10,400 sq. ft. for government office buildings) are extremely small compared to the average sizes of existing office buildings surveyed in the 2003 BOMA Experience Exchange Report (381,447 sq. ft. (downtown area) and 119,410 sq. ft. (suburban area) for private office buildings; 178,993 sq. ft. (downtown area) and 38,319 sq. ft. (suburban area) for government office buildings), the total number of construction projects reported in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin (24,058 projects) most likely represents a significant number of alteration projects involving work on only portions of existing facilities that may not be affected by the revisions.  To estimate the national costs of the revisions for office buildings, the total square feet of office building construction reported in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin (160 million sq. ft.) is converted to an equivalent number of average size office buildings.  It is assumed that the total square feet of office building construction is equally divided between downtown areas and suburban areas.  The total square feet of office building construction is equivalent to 985 average size office buildings as shown in Table 8.1.1.

 

Table 8.1.1 – Office Building Construction:

Total Floor Area Equivalent to Average Size Office Buildings (text version)

Location

Number of Buildings & Average Size

Total Floor Area

                                           Private Office Buildings

Downtown Area

200 Buildings

(380,000 sq. ft. per building)

 

76 million sq. ft

Suburban Area

625 Buildings

(120,000 sq. ft. per building)

 

75 million sq. ft.

                                           Government Office Buildings

Downtown Area

30 Buildings

(180,000 sq. ft. per building)

 

5 million sq. ft.

Suburban Area

130 Buildings

(40,000 sq. ft. per building)

 

5 million sq. ft.

Total

985 Buildings

161 million sq. ft.

 

Office building construction costs vary widely and range from $100 to $200 or more per square foot.  For purposes of this assessment, $140 per square foot is used to estimate the construction costs for office buildings.  The total construction costs for the 985 office buildings in Table 8.1.1 is $22.6 billion compared to $21.6 billion in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin as shown in Table 8.1.2.

 

Table 8.1.2 – Office Building Construction Costs (text version)

 

Location

Number of Buildings & Average Size

Construction Costs Per Building (Millions)

Total Construction Costs (Billions)

Private Office Buildings

Downtown Area

200 Buildings

(380,000 sq. ft. per building)

$53.2

$10.6

Suburban Area

625 Buildings

(120,000 sq. ft. per building)

$16.8

$10.5

Government Office Buildings

Downtown Area

30 Buildings

(180,000 sq. ft. per building)

$25.2

$.8

Suburban Area

130 Buildings

(40,000 sq. ft. per building)

$5.6

$.7

Total (Billions)

$22.6


8.1.2    Revisions That Affect Office Buildings 

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

Office buildings that have between 601 and 3,200 parking spaces will have to widen one access aisle from 5 feet to 8 feet.[191]  For each additional 1,800 parking spaces over 3,200, an additional access aisle will have to be widened by 3 feet.  The 2003 BOMA Experience Exchange Report provides data on the average number of parking spaces per 1,000 square feet.  Private office buildings (1,843 surveyed) have 1.96 parking spaces and government office buildings (507 surveyed) have 0.92 parking spaces per 1,000 square feet.  Based on these ratios, private office buildings with more than 306,000 square feet and government offices with more than 625,000 square feet will have at least 601 parking spaces.  As shown in Table 8.1.1, the only office building that meets these criteria is the average downtown private office building.  The average downtown private office building will not have more than 3,200 parking spaces.  Therefore, for purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 100 percent of the downtown private office buildings (200 buildings) will have between 601 and 3,200 parking spaces. 

 

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

 

Men’s toilet rooms with six or more water closets and urinals, but fewer than six toilet compartments, will have to provide an ambulatory accessible toilet compartment with grab bars.[192]  Plumbing codes typically specify the minimum number of plumbing fixtures required based on the type of building and occupant load.  Plumbing fixtures are usually divided equally between men’s and women’s toilet rooms; and urinals are allowed to be provided in place of a certain number of water closets in men’s toilet rooms.  Plumbing fixtures are usually dispersed evenly among the floors in office buildings.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 100 percent of the downtown private office buildings (200 buildings) and 100 percent of downtown government office buildings (30 buildings) will have men’s toilet rooms with six or more water closets and urinals, but fewer than six toilet compartments.  It is also assumed that the private office buildings will have 20 floors and the government office buildings will have 10 floors.

 

Public TTYs

 

Private office buildings are currently required to provide a public TTY in buildings with four or more public pay telephones.  Under the final revised guidelines, private office buildings will have to provide a public TTY in buildings with four or more public pay telephones; on floors with four or more public pay telephones; and in banks with four or more public pay telephones.[193]  Banks of telephones located on the same floor within 200 feet from a bank with a public TTY are exempt from the requirement.

 

Government office buildings are currently required to provide a public TTY in buildings with a public pay telephone in a public use area.  Under the final revised guidelines, government office buildings will have to provide a public TTY in buildings with a public pay telephone; on floors with a public pay telephone; and in banks with four or more public pay telephones.  Banks of telephones located on the same floor within 200 feet from a bank with a public TTY are exempt from the requirement.

 

For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 10 percent of private office buildings (83 buildings) will have four or more public pay telephones on two floors and will have to provide an additional public TTY.  It is also assumed that 10 percent of government office buildings (16 buildings) will have a public pay telephone on two floors and will have to provide an additional public TTY.

 

Two-Way Communication Systems

 

Where two-way communication systems are provided to gain entry to an office building or a restricted area within the building, the system will have to provide audible and visible signals.[194]  Card-reader systems are more common than two-way communication systems in office buildings.  Some card-reader systems also include a two-way communication system and will be affected by the final revised guidelines.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 25 percent of private and government office buildings (250 buildings) will have a two-way communication system.

 

Water Closet Clearance

 

If an office building has a single-user toilet room with an out-swinging door, the toilet room will have to be increased by 9 square feet to provide the 60 inches by 56 inches minimum clearance around the water closet.[195]  Office buildings usually have multi-user toilet rooms.  A single-user toilet room may be provided within office suites for executives, or for the convenience of employees or customers.  Single-user toilet rooms usually have in-swinging doors.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 25 percent of private and government office buildings (250 buildings) will have a single-user toilet room with an out-swinging door.

 

Galley Kitchen Clearance

 

If an office building has a galley kitchen with a cooktop or range that is enclosed on three sides, the kitchen will have to be increased by 13 square feet to provide 60 inches minimum clearance between the counters or walls.[196]  Kitchens in office buildings are usually equipped with a microwave oven.  Cooktops or ranges are not usually provided in office building kitchens.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 10 percent of private and government office buildings (100 buildings) will have a galley kitchen with a cooktop or range. 

 

The revisions that affect office buildings are summarized in Table 8.1.3.

Table 8.1.3 – Revisions That Affect Office Buildings (text version)

Revision

Assumptions: Percentage (Number) of

Office Buildings Affected

Costs Per Facility

Compared to

Current  Guidelines

IBC 2000

IBC 2003

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

100% (200) Downtown Private Office Buildings Have 601 – 3,200 Parking Spaces

 

$344

 

$344

 

$0

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

100% (200) Downtown Private Office Buildings Have 20 Men’s Toilet Rooms with 6 or More Water Closets and Urinals, but Fewer Than 6 Toilet Compartments

 

 

 

$2,900

 

 

 

$0

 

 

 

$0

100% (30) Downtown Government Office Buildings Have 10 Men’s Toilet Rooms with 6 or More Water Closets and Urinals, but Fewer Than 6 Toilet Compartments

 

 

 

$1,450

 

 

 

$0

 

 

 

$0

Public TTYs

10% (83) Private Office Buildings Have 4 or More Public Pay Telephones on 2 Floors

 

$2,320

 

$2,320

 

$2,320

10% (16) Government Office Buildings Have 1 Public Pay Telephone on 2 Floors

 

$2,320

 

$2,320

 

$2,320

Two-Way Communication Systems

 

25% (250) Private and Government Office Buildings Have 1 Two-Way Communication System

 

 

$1,392

 

 

$1,392

 

 

$1,392

Water Closet Clearance

25% (250) Private and Government Office Buildings Have 1 Single-User Toilet Room with Out-Swinging Door

 

 

$667

 

 

$0

 

 

$0

Galley Kitchen Clearance

10% (100) Private and Government Office Buildings  Have 1 Galley Kitchen with Cooktop or Range

 

$993

 

$993

 

$993

 

8.1.3    Additional Costs for Office Buildings

 

For purposes of estimating the additional costs of the revisions for the construction of individual office buildings, it is assumed that the downtown private office building is affected by all the revisions in Table 8.1.3; the downtown government office building is affected by all the revisions in Table 8.1.3, except for van accessible parking spaces; and the suburban private and government office buildings are affected by all the revisions in Table 8.1.3, except for van accessible parking spaces and ambulatory accessible toilet compartments. The additional costs of the revisions for the construction of individual office buildings are shown in Table 8.1.4.

 

Table 8.1.4 – Additional Costs for Office Buildings (text version)

 

Office Building &

Construction Costs

Additional Costs Compared to

(Percentage of Total Construction Costs)

Current Guidelines

IBC 2000

IBC 2003

Downtown Private

$53.2 Million

$8,616

 (0.02%)

$5,049

(0.01%)

$4,705

(0.01%)

Suburban Private

$16.8 Million

$5,372

(0.03%)

$4,705

(0.03%)

$4,705

(0.03%)

Downtown Government

$25.2 Million

$6,822

(0.03%)

$4,705

(0.02%)

$4,705

(0.02%)

Suburban Government

$5.6 Million

$5,372

(0.1%)

$4,705

(0.08%)

$4,705

(0.08%)

 


8.1.4    National Costs for Office Buildings

For purposes of estimating the national costs of the revisions for the construction of office buildings, the assumptions summarized in Table 8.1.3 regarding the number of office buildings affected by each revision are applied.  The national costs for the construction of office buildings are shown in Table 8.1.5.

 

Table 8.1.5 – National Costs for Office Buildings (text version)

Revision

Assumptions: Number of Office

Buildings Affected

National Costs Compared to

Current  Guidelines  

Upper Bound

IBC

2000

Lower Bound

IBC 2003

Lower Bound

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

200 Downtown Private Office Buildings

$66,800

$66,800

$0

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

200 Downtown Private Office Buildings

$580,000

$0

$0

30 Downtown Government Office Buildings

$43,500

$0

$0

Public TTYs

100 Private and Government Office Buildings

$232,000

$232,000

$232,000

Two-Way Communication Systems

250 Private and Government Office Buildings

$348,000

$348,000

$348,000

Water Closet Clearance

250 Private and Government Office Buildings

$166,750

$0

$0

Galley Kitchen Clearance

100 Private and Government Office Buildings

$99,300

$99,300

$99,300

Total (Millions)

$1.5

$0.7

$0.7

8.2  Hotels

8.2.1    Hotel Data

 

The Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin reports that 1,121 construction projects for hotels were started in 2002.  Hotel construction projects totaled 9 million square feet valued at $4.4 billion (average project size: 35,150 sq. ft.; average project value: $4.0 million).[197] 

 

The Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place reports that the value of hotel construction work installed during 2002 was $10.3 billion.  New construction accounted for 77 percent of the work ($8.0 billion), and additions and alterations accounted for 23 percent of the work ($2.3 billion).

 

The American Hotel and Lodging Association (AHLA) issues an annual profile of the lodging industry.  The 2003 AHLA Lodging Industry Profile provides data on the number of existing hotels as of the end of 2002.  Lodging Econometrics provides data on the number of new hotels completed in 2001 and 2002.  The data is shown in Table 8.2.1.

 Table 8.2.1 – Hotels by Size (text version)

Size

Existing Hotels at End of 2002

New Hotels Completed in 2001 & 2002

Under 75 rooms

26,840 (57%)

753 (41%)

75 – 149 rooms

14,170 (30%)

810 (45%)

150 – 299 rooms

4,422 (10%)

193 (11%)

300 – 500 rooms

1,103 (2%)

38 (2%)

Over 500 rooms

505 (1%)

24 (1%)

Total

47,040 (100%)

1,818 (100%)

 

Lodging Econometrics reports that 631 new hotels were completed between July 2002 and July 2003, and another 528 new hotels were under construction at the end of July 2003.[198] 

 

Hotel guest rooms vary in size from 250 square feet for an economy hotel to 350 or more square feet for an upscale hotel.  The total floor area of a hotel will depend on the other facilities provided, including restaurants, banquet and meeting rooms, and exercise rooms and pools.  Hotel construction costs vary widely depending on location, class of hotel, and other facilities provided.  The range of construction costs per room by hotel size is shown in Table 8.2.2.[199]

Table 8.2.2 - Hotel Construction Costs per Room (text version)

Size

Range

Under 75 rooms

$28,000 - $38,000

75 – 149 rooms

$42,000 – $52,000

150 – 299 rooms

$55,000 – $70,000

300 – 500 rooms

$55,000 - $100,000

Over 500 rooms

$95,000 - $110,000

 

For purposes of this assessment, the middle of the range of construction costs and the

average number of guest rooms in hotels for each size group that were completed in 2001 and 2002 are used to estimate the total construction costs of hotels as shown in Table 8.2.3.[200]

 

Table 8.2.3 – Hotel Construction Costs (text version)
 

Size

Average Number of Rooms in New Hotels Completed in 2001 & 2002

Construction Costs (Millions)

Under 75 rooms

56

$1.8

75 – 149 rooms

102

$4.8

150 – 299 rooms

207

$12.9

300 – 500 rooms

388

$30.1

Over 500 rooms

797

$81.7

 

 

The average size and value of hotel construction projects reported in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin (35,100 sq. ft.; $4.0 million) are equivalent to a hotel with 75 to 149 guest rooms. The number of construction projects reported in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin (1,121 projects) is considered representative of the number of hotels that will be affected by the revisions.  It is assumed that the hotel construction projects have guest rooms in the same percentages as new hotels completed during 2001 and 2002 as shown in Table 8.2.4.

 

Table 8.2.4 – Hotel Construction Projects by Size (text version)

Size

Percentage of New Hotels Completed in

2001 & 2002

Hotel Construction Projects Started in 2002

Under 75 rooms

41%

460

75 – 149 rooms

45%

504

150 – 299 rooms

11%

123

300 – 500 rooms

2%

22

Over 500 rooms

1%

11

Total

100%

1,120

 

8.2.2    Revisions That Affect Hotels

 

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

Hotels that have between 601 and 3,200 parking spaces will have to widen one access aisle from 5 feet to 8 feet.[201]  For each additional 1,800 parking spaces over 3,200, an additional access aisle will have to be widened by 3 feet.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 100 percent of hotels with 300 or more guest rooms (33 hotels) will have between 601 and 3,200 parking spaces.

 

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

 

Men’s toilet rooms with six or more water closets and urinals, but fewer than six toilet compartments, will have to provide an ambulatory accessible toilet compartment with grab bars.[202]  Plumbing codes typically specify the minimum number of plumbing fixtures required based on the type of building and occupant load.  Plumbing fixtures are usually divided equally between men’s and women’s toilet rooms; and urinals are allowed to be provided in place of a certain number of water closets in men’s toilet rooms.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 100 percent of hotels with 300 to 500 rooms (22 hotels) will have one men’s toilet room with six or more water closets and urinals, but fewer than six toilet compartments.  It is also assumed that 100 percent of hotels with over 500 rooms (11 hotels) will have two men’s toilet rooms with six or more water closets and urinals, but fewer than six toilet compartments.

 

Public TTYs

 

Hotels are currently required to provide a public TTY in buildings with four or more public pay telephones.  Under the final revised guidelines, hotels will have to provide a public TTY in buildings with four or more public pay telephones; on floors with four or more public pay telephones; and in banks with four or more public pay telephones.[203]  Banks of telephones located on the same floor within 200 feet from a bank with a public TTY are exempt from the requirement.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 100 percent of hotels with 300 to 500 rooms (22 hotels) will have four or more public pay telephones on two floors and will have to provide an additional public TTY.  It is also assumed that 100 percent of hotels with over 500 rooms (11 hotels) will have three banks of telephones with four or more public pay telephones and that the banks are not located within 200 feet on the same floor, and will have to provide two additional public TTYs.

 

Operable Windows

 

Where guest rooms with mobility features have windows that can be opened, at least one window per room will have to meet the technical requirements for operable parts.[204]  With the exception of single story motel type lodging, windows in hotels are typically fixed and do not open.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 50 percent of hotels with under 75 guest rooms (230 hotels), and 25 percent of hotels with 75 to 149 guest rooms (126 hotels) will have windows that open. 

 

Water Closet Clearance

 

If a bathroom in a guest room with mobility features has an out-swinging door, the bathroom will have to be increased by 9 square feet to provide the 60 inches by 56 inches minimum clearance around the water closet.[205]  Bathrooms usually have in-swinging doors.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that in 25 percent of hotels (281 hotels) guest rooms with mobility features will have bathrooms with an out-swinging door.

 

Shower Spray Controls

 

Bathtubs and showers in guest rooms with mobility features will have to provide an on/off control on hand held shower sprays.[206]  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that in 100 percent of hotels (1,120 hotels) hand held shower sprays in guest rooms with mobility features will need an on/off control.

 

Galley Kitchen Clearance

 

If a guest suite with mobility features has a galley kitchen with a cooktop or range and is enclosed on three sides, the kitchen will have to be increased by 13 square feet to provide 60 inches minimum clearance between the counters or walls.[207]  Extended stay hotels and suite hotels sometimes have kitchens with a cooktop or range.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 5 percent of hotels with 75 to 149 rooms (23 hotels) will have a galley kitchen with a cooktop or range in guest suites with mobility features.

 

Vanity Counter Space

 

Guest rooms with mobility features will have to provide vanity counter space that is comparable to the counter space in other guest rooms.[208]  In some hotels, comparable vanity counter space is provided in guest rooms with mobility features, and in other hotels it is not.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that in 50 percent of hotels (561 hotels) guest rooms with mobility features will need to provide comparable vanity counter space.

 

The revisions that affect hotels are summarized in Table 8.2.5.  The minimum number of guest rooms with mobility features is based on the highest number of guest rooms for the hotel size group.  For example, the minimum number of guest rooms with mobility features for hotels with 75 to 149 guest rooms is based on 149 rooms.  For hotels with over 500 guest rooms, the minimum number of guestrooms with mobility features is based on 800 rooms.

 

Table 8.2.5 – Revisions That Affect Hotels (text version)

Revision

Assumptions: Percentage (Number) of

Hotels Affected

Costs Per Facility Compared to

Current  Guidelines

IBC 2000

IBC 2003

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

100% (33) Hotels with 300 or More Rooms Have 601 – 3,200 Parking Spaces

 

$344

 

$344

 

$0

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

100% (22) Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms Have 1 Men’s Toilet Rooms with 6 or More Water Closets and Urinals, but Fewer than 6 Toilet Compartments

 

 

 

$145

 

 

 

$0

 

 

 

$0

100% (11) Hotels with over 500 Rooms Have 2 Men’s Toilet Rooms with 6 or More Water Closets and Urinals, but Fewer than 6 Toilet Compartments

 

 

 

$290

 

 

 

$0

 

 

 

$0

Public TTYs

100% (22) Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms Have 4 or More Public Pay Telephones on 2 Floors

 

$2,320

 

$2,320

 

$2,320

100% (11) Hotels with over 500 Rooms Have 3 Banks with 4 or More Public Pay Telephones

 

$4,640

 

$4,640

 

$4,640

Operable

Windows

50% (230) Hotels with under 75 Rooms Have Operable Windows in 4 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$2,020

 

 

$0

 

 

$0

25% (126) Hotels with 75 – 149 Rooms Have Operable Windows in 7 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$3,535

 

 

$0

 

 

$0

Water Closet Clearance

25% (115) Hotels with under 75 Rooms Have Bathroom with Out-Swinging Door in 4 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

 

$2,668

 

 

$0

 

 

$0

25% (126) Hotels with 75 -149 Rooms Have Bathroom with Out-Swinging Door in 7 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$4,669

 

 

$0

 

 

$0

25% (31) Hotels with 150 – 299 Rooms Have Bathroom with Out-Swinging Door in 10 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$6,670

 

 

$0

 

 

$0

25% (6) Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms Have Bathroom with Out-Swinging Door in 13 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$8,671

 

 

$0

 

 

$0

25% (3) Hotels with over 500 Rooms Have Bathroom with Out-Swinging Door in 28 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$18,676

 

 

$0

 

 

$0

Shower Spray Controls

100% (460) Hotels with under 75 Rooms Have to Provide Shower Spray Controls in 4 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$644

 

 

$644

 

 

$644

100% (504) Hotels with 75 -149 Rooms Have to Provide Shower Spray Controls in 7 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$1,127

 

 

$1,127

 

 

$1,127

100% (123) Hotels with 150 – 299 Rooms Have to Provide Shower Spray Controls in 10 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$1,610

 

 

$1,610

 

 

$1,160

100% (22) Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms Have to Provide Shower Spray Controls in 13 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$2,093

 

 

$2,093

 

 

$2,093

100% (11) Hotels with over 500 Rooms Have to Provide Shower Spray Controls in 28 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$4,508

 

 

$4,508

 

 

$4,508

Galley Kitchen Clearance

5% (23)Hotels with 75 – 149 rooms Have Galley Kitchen in 7 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

$6,951

 

$6,951

 

$6,951

Vanity Counter Space

50% (230) Hotels with under 75 Rooms Have to Provide Vanity Counter Space in 4 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$3,008

 

 

$3,008

 

 

$3,008

50% (252) Hotels with 75 -149 Rooms Have to Provide Vanity Counter Space in 7 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$5,264

 

 

$5,264

 

 

$5,264

50% (62) Hotels with 150 – 299 Rooms Have to Provide Vanity Counter Space in 10 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$7,520

 

 

$7,520

 

 

$7,520

50% (11) Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms Have to Provide Vanity Counter Space in 13 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$9,776

 

 

$9,776

 

 

$9,776

50% (6) Hotels with over 500 Rooms Have to Provide Vanity Counter Space in 28 Rooms with Mobility Features

 

 

$21,056

 

 

$21,056

 

 

$21,056

 

8.2.3    Additional Costs for Hotels

 

For purposes of estimating the additional costs of the revisions for the construction of individual hotels, the assumptions summarized in Table 8.2.5 are applied, except that it is assumed that each hotel is affected by water closet clearance and vanity counter space; each hotel with under 75 guest rooms is affected by operable windows; and each hotel with 75 to 149 guest rooms is affected by operable windows and galley kitchen clearance.  The additional costs of the revisions for the construction of individual hotels are shown in Table 8.2.6.
 

Table 8.2.6 – Additional Costs for Hotels (text version)

 

Hotel &

Construction Costs

Additional Costs Compared to

(Percentage of Total Construction Costs)

Current Guidelines

IBC 2000

IBC 2003

Under 75 rooms

$1.8 Million

$8,340

 (0.5%)

$3,652

(0.2%)

$3,652

(0.2%)

75 – 149 rooms

$4.8 Million

$21,546

(0.4%)

$13,342

(0.3%)

$13,342

(0.3%)

150 – 299 rooms

$12.9 Million

$15,800

(0.1%)

$9,130

(0.07%)

$9,130

(0.07%)

300 – 500 rooms

$30.1 Million

$23,349

(0.08%)

$14,533

(0.05%)

$14,189

(0.05%)

Over 500 rooms

$81.7 Million

$49,514

(0.06%)

$30,548

(0.04%)

$30,204

(0.04%)

 

8.2.4    National Costs for Hotels

 

For purposes of estimating the national costs of the revisions for the construction of hotels, the assumptions summarized in Table 8.2.5 regarding the number of hotels affected by each revision are applied.  The national costs for the construction of hotels are shown in Table 8.2.7.

 

Table 8.2.7 – National Costs for Hotels (text version)

Revision

Assumptions: Number of

Hotels Affected

National Costs Compared to

Current  Guidelines

Upper

 Bound

IBC

2000

Lower Bound

IBC

2003

Lower Bound

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

33 Hotels with 300 or More Rooms

 

$11,352

 

$11,352

 

$0

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

22 Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms

$3,190

$0

$0

11 Hotels with over 500 Rooms

 

$3,190

 

$0

 

$0

Public TTYs

22 Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms

$51,040

$51,040

$51,040

11 Hotels with over 500 Rooms

$51,040

$51,040

$51,040

Operable

Windows

230 Hotels with under 75 Rooms

$464,600

$0

$0

126 Hotels with 75 – 149 Rooms

$445,410

$0

$0

Water Closet Clearance

115 Hotels with under 75 Rooms

$306,820

$0

$0

126 Hotels with 75 -149 Rooms

$588,294

$0

$0

31 Hotels with 150 – 299 Rooms

$206,770

$0

$0

6 Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms

$68,671

$0

$0

3 Hotels with over 500 Rooms

$56,028

$0

$0

Shower Spray Controls

460 Hotels with under 75Rooms

$296,240

$296,240

$296,240

504 Hotels with 75 -149 Rooms

$568,008

$568,008

$568,008

123 Hotels with 150 – 299 Rooms

$198,030

$198,030

$198,030

22 Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms

$46,046

$46,046

$46,046

11 Hotels with over 500 Rooms

$49,588

$49,588

$49,588

Galley Kitchen Clearance

23 Hotels with 75 – 149 Rooms

$159,873

$159,873

$159,873

Vanity Counter Space

230 Hotels with under 75 Rooms

$691,840

$691,840

$691,840

252 Hotels with 75 -149 Rooms

$1,326,528

$1,326,528

$1,326,528

61 Hotels with 150 – 299 Rooms

$466,240

$466,240

$466,240

11 Hotels with 300 – 500 Rooms

$107,536

$107,536

$107,536

6 Hotels with over 500 Rooms

$126,336

$126,336

$126,336

Total (Millions)

$6.2

$4.1

$4.1

8.3  Hospitals and Nursing Homes

8.3.1    Hospital and Nursing Home Data

 

The Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin reports that 7,480 construction projects for hospitals and health care facilities were started in 2002.  Hospital and health care construction projects totaled 97 million square feet valued at $15.9 billion (average project size: 12,190 sq. ft.; average project value: $2.1 million).[209]  The construction projects include freestanding outpatient facilities and other health care facilities that will not be affected by the revisions.

 

The Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place reports that the value of hospital and health care facility construction work installed during 2002 was $27.6 billion.  Hospital construction work alone was $17.0 billion.  New construction accounted for 46 percent of the hospital work ($7.9 billion), and additions and alterations accounted for 54 percent of the hospital work ($9.1 billion).

 

The American Hospital Association (AHA) conducts an annual survey of existing hospitals.  The 2003 AHA Hospital Statistics reports that there were 5,801 registered hospitals and 987,440 staffed beds in 2001 (average staffed beds per hospital: 170).

 

Modern Healthcare conducts an annual survey of hospital and health care facility construction, projects.  The survey results for hospital and nursing home construction projects started in 2002 are shown in Table 8.3.1.

 

Table 8.3.1 – Hospital and Nursing Home (text version)

Construction Projects Started in 2002

Facility

Projects

Beds

(New or Replacement)

Construction Costs

(Billions)

Acute Care Hospital

1,207

124,710

$15.7

Specialty Hospital

177

5,399

$3.2

Rehabilitation Hospital

41

1,455

$.4

Nursing Home

64

5,159

$.6

Total

1,489

136,723

$19.9

 

The typical patient sleeping room has one bed and is 150 to 200 square feet, excluding the toilet room and closet.  The total floor area of a hospital will depend on the facilities provided, including rooms for surgery and other procedures.

 

Hospital construction costs vary widely depending on location and facilities provided.  Modern Healthcare provides data on the size and costs of hospital construction projects.  A sample of projects under design or construction in 2003 included a new 80 bed hospital in Florida costing $80 million; a 130 bed addition to an existing hospital in Missouri, including seven operating rooms and 20 obstetrics suites, costing $137 million; and a new 170 bed hospital in Tennessee costing $80 million.

 

Since the construction projects in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin include other health care facilities that will not be affected by the revisions, and the average value of the construction projects ($2.1 million) is extremely small compared to the sample of hospital construction projects in Modern Healthcare ($80 million to $137 million), the number of hospital and nursing home construction projects in the Modern Healthcare survey (1,425 hospital projects with 131,564 new or replacement beds valued at $19.3 billion; 64 nursing home projects with 5,159 new or replacement beds valued at $0.6 billion) is used for purposes of estimating the national costs of the revisions for hospitals and nursing homes.  It is assumed that the patient sleeping rooms in hospitals have one bed and that 10 percent of the beds in rehabilitation hospitals specialize in treating conditions that affect mobility.  It is also assumed that 50 percent of the patient sleeping rooms in nursing homes have one bed per room, and 50 percent have two beds per room.  A minimum of 15,223 patient sleeping rooms with mobility features will be affected by the revisions as shown in Table 8.3.2.

 

Table 8.3.2 – Patient Sleeping Rooms with Mobility Features (text version)

 

Facility

Beds

(New or Replacement)

Minimum Number

Rooms with Mobility Features

Acute Care Hospital

124,710

10%

12,471

Specialty Hospital

     5,399

10%

540

Rehabilitation Hospital

(Mobility conditions)  146

100%

146

(Other conditions)    1,309

10%

131

Nursing Home

  (1 bed per room)    2,580

50%

1,290

  (2 beds per room)    2,580

50%

645

Total

136,723

15,223

 

8.3.2    Revisions That Affect Hospitals and Nursing Homes

 

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

Hospitals that have between 601 and 3,200 parking spaces will have to widen one access aisle from 5 feet to 8 feet.[210]  For each additional 1,800 parking spaces over 3,200, an additional access aisle will have to be widened by 3 feet.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 100 percent of hospitals (1,425 hospitals) will have between 601 and 3,200 parking spaces.  It is also assumed that nursing homes will not have more than 600 parking spaces.

 

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

 

Men’s toilet rooms with six or more water closets and urinals, but less than six toilet compartments, will have to provide an ambulatory accessible toilet compartment with grab bars.[211]  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that in hospitals and nursing homes men’s toilet rooms will have less than six water closets and urinals.

 

Public TTYs

 

Hospitals are currently required to provide a public TTY near emergency rooms, recovery rooms, and waiting rooms if a public pay telephone is provided at any of these locations.  The final revised guidelines do not change this requirement.[212]  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that hospitals will not have to provide any additional public TTYs than currently required.

 

Nursing homes are currently required to provide a public TTY in buildings with four or more public pay telephones.  Under the final revised guidelines, nursing homes will have to provide a public TTY in buildings with four or more public pay telephones; on floors with four or more public pay telephones; and in banks with four or more public pay telephones.[213]  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that nursing homes will not have four or more public pay telephones on a floor or in a bank.

 

Operable Windows

 

Where patient sleeping rooms with mobility features have windows that can be opened, at least one window per room will have to meet the technical requirements for operable parts.[214]  Patient sleeping rooms in hospitals typically have fixed windows that do not open to control infection risks.  Hospitals and nursing homes also typically provide fixed windows for energy and cost considerations.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that in hospitals patient sleeping rooms with mobility features will not have operable windows, and in nursing homes 50 percent of patient sleeping rooms with mobility features (968 rooms) will have operable windows.

 

Water Closet Clearance

 

Toilet rooms in patient sleeping rooms with mobility features usually have out-swinging doors and will have to be increased by 9 square feet to provide the 60 inches by 56 inches minimum clearance at the water closet.[215]  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 100 percent of patient sleeping rooms with mobility features (15,223 rooms) will be impacted by this revision.

 

Shower Spray Controls

 

Bathtubs and showers in patient sleeping rooms with mobility features will have to provide an on/off control on hand held shower sprays.[216]  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that in 100 percent of patient sleeping rooms with mobility features (15,223 rooms) hand held shower sprays will need an on/off control.

 

The revisions that affect hospitals and nursing homes are summarized in Table 8.3.3.

 

Table 8.3.3 – Revisions That Affect Hospitals and Nursing Homes (text version)

Revision

Assumptions: Percentage (Number) of Hospitals and Nursing Homes/ Patient Sleeping Rooms with Mobility Features Affected

Costs Per Facility/Patient Sleeping Room Compared to

Current  Guidelines

IBC

2000

IBC

2003

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

100% (1,425) Hospitals Have 601 – 3,200 Parking Spaces

 $344

 $344

 $0

Operable Windows

50% (968) Patient Sleeping Rooms with Mobility Features in Nursing Homes Have Operable Windows

  $505

  $0

  $0

Water Closet Clearance

100%  (15,223) Patient Sleeping Rooms with Mobility Features Have Toilet Rooms with Out-Swinging Doors

 

 

  $667

 

 

  $0

 

 

  $0

Shower Spray

Controls

100% (15,223) Patient Sleeping Rooms with Mobility Features Have to Provide Shower Spray Controls

  $161

  $161

  $161

 

8.3.3    Additional Costs for Hospitals

 

For purposes of estimating the additional costs of the revisions for the construction of individual hospitals, the lower end of the hospital construction costs sampled in Modern Healthcare is used: a new hospital with 170 beds costing $80 million.  The hospital is required to provide a minimum of 17 patient sleeping rooms with mobility features.  It is assumed that the hospital is affected by all the revisions in Table 8.3.2, except for operable windows.  The additional costs of the revisions for the construction of individual hospitals are $14,420 compared to the current guidelines, which is 0.02 percent of the total construction costs; and $3,081 compared to the 2000 edition of the International Building Code and $2,737 compared to the 2003 edition of the International Building Code, which are 0.00% of the total construction costs.

 

8.3.4    National Costs for Hospitals and Nursing Homes

 

For purposes of estimating the national costs of the revisions for the construction of hospitals and nursing rooms, the assumptions summarized in Table 8.3.2 regarding the number of facilities and patient sleeping rooms with mobility features affected by each revision are applied.  The national costs of the revisions for the construction of hospitals and nursing homes are shown in Table 8.3.4.

Table 8.3.4 –National Costs for Hospitals and Nursing Homes (text version)

Revision

Assumptions: Number of Hospitals and Nursing Homes/ Patient Sleeping Rooms with Mobility Features Affected

National Costs Compared to

Current  Guidelines

Upper Bound

IBC

2000

Lower Bound

IBC

2003

Lower Bound

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

1,425 Hospitals

 $490,200

 $490,200

 $0

Operable Windows

968 Patient Sleeping Rooms with Mobility Features

 $488,840

 $0

 $0

Water Closet Clearance

15,223 Patient Sleeping Rooms with Mobility Features

$10,153,741

 $0

 $0

Shower Spray

Controls

15,223 Patient Sleeping Rooms with Mobility Features

 $2,450,903

 $2,450,903

$2,450,903

Total (Millions)

$13.6

$2.9

$2.4

 

8.4  Federal, State, and Local Government Housing[217]

 

8.4.1    Federal, State, and Local Government Housing Data

 

The Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin reports that the value of residential construction projects started by Federal, State, and local governments in 2002 was $2.8 billion.[218]  The Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin does not include data on the total number of the Federal, State, and local government residential construction projects, or the total floor area of the projects.

 

The Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place reports that the value of residential construction work installed by Federal, State, and local governments during 2002 was $6.0 billion as shown in Table 8.4.1.[219] 

 

Table 8.4.1 – Value of Residential Construction Put in Place by Federal,

 State, and Local Governments in 2002 (Millions of Dollars) (text version)

Government

New Construction

Alteration

Total

Federal

$818

$617

$1,435

State and Local

$1,265

$3,327

$4,592

Total

$2,083

$3,944

$6,027

 

New construction accounted for 35 percent of the work ($2.0 billion), and additions and alterations accounted for 65 percent of the work ($4.0 billion).  Ninety eight percent of the State and local government residential construction projects are multi-family residential facilities.[220] 

 

The Census Bureau Characteristics of New Housing Completed in 2002 provides the following information on rental units in privately owned multi-family residential facilities:

 

  • 77 percent of multi-family residential construction projects are completed within 12 months.

 

  • 47 percent of the units have two bedrooms, 33 percent have one bedroom, 17 percent have three or more bedrooms, and 2 percent are efficiencies. 

 

  • The median floor area is 1,070 square feet.[221]

 

If the percentage of Federal, State, and local government multi-family residential construction projects completed within 12 months is equivalent to percentage of private multi-family construction projects completed within the same period (77 percent completed within 12 months), the values in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin ($2.8 billion) and the Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place ($6.0 Billion) should not differ so widely.  The Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin may underestimate the value of Federal, State, and local government residential construction, and the Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place may be a better indicator of the number of dwelling units constructed or altered by Federal, State, and local governments.  This assessment uses the Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place to estimate the national costs for Federal, State, and local government housing.

 

Construction costs for multi-family residential facilities range from $100 to $120 per square foot.  The lower range is used for purposes of this assessment.  A two bedroom dwelling unit is assumed to be 1,000 square feet and cost $100,000 to construct.[222]  The annual value of residential new construction work by Federal, State, and local governments ($2.1 billion) is equivalent to 21,000 new two bedroom dwelling units.  A minimum of 1,050 of the units are required to provide mobility features, and a minimum of 420 of the units are required to provide communication features as shown in Table 8.4.2.

 

Table 8.4.2 - Value of Residential New Construction Work

Equivalent to New Two Bedroom Dwelling Units (text version)

Government

New Construction Work

Two Bedroom Units

( Assume $100,000 per Unit)

Minimum Number

Units with Mobility Features

(5 Percent)

Minimum Number

Units with Communication Features

(2 Percent)

Federal

$0.8 Billion

8,000

400

160

State and Local

$1.3 Billion

13,000

650

260

Total

$2.1 Billion

21,000

1,050

420

 

For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that it costs $50,000 to substantially alter a dwelling unit and that the annual value of residential alteration work by Federal, State, and local governments ($3.9 billion) is equivalent to 78,000 substantially altered dwelling units.[223]  A minimum of 3900 dwelling units are required to have mobility features, and a minimum of 1,560 dwelling units are required to have communication features as shown in Table 8.4.3.

 

Table 8.4.3 - Value of Residential Alteration Work

Equivalent to Substantially Altered Two Bedroom Dwelling Units (text version)

Government

Alteration

Work

Two Bedroom Units

(Assume $50,000 per Unit)

Minimum Number

Units with Mobility Features

(5 Percent)

Minimum Number

Units with Communication Features

(2 Percent)

Federal

$0.6 Billion

12,000

600

240

State and Local

$3.3 Billion

66,000

3,300

1,320

Total

$3.9 Billion

78,000

3,900

1,560

 

8.4.2    Revisions That Affect Federal, State, and Local Government Housing

 

Water Closet Clearance

 

If a bathroom in a dwelling unit with mobility features has an out-swinging door, the bathroom will have to be increased by 4 square feet to provide the 60 inches by 56 inches minimum clearance around the water closet.[224]  Bathrooms usually have in-swinging doors.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 25 percent of dwelling units with mobility features (1,238 units) will have bathrooms with an out-swinging door.

 

Shower Spray Controls

 

Bathtubs and showers in dwelling units with mobility features will have to provide an on/off control on hand held shower sprays.[225]  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that hand held shower spray units in 100 percent of dwelling units with mobility features (4,950 units) will need an on/off control.

 

Galley Kitchen Clearance

 

If a dwelling unit with mobility features has a galley kitchen and the space is enclosed on three sides, the kitchen will have to be increased by 13 square feet to provide 60 inches minimum clearance between the counters or walls.[226]  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 75 percent of dwelling units with mobility features (3,713 units) will have a galley kitchen and the space is enclosed on three sides.

 

Communication Features

 

Dwelling units required to provide communication features will have to provide a doorbell with audible and visible signals and a door peephole to identify visitors.[227]  For purposes of this assessment, it assumed that 50 percent of dwelling units required to provide communication features (990 units) will have doorbells with audible signals and door peepholes, and will need to add a visible signal to the doorbell; and that the other 50 percent (990 units) will not have doorbells or door peepholes, and will need doorbells with audible and visible signals and door peepholes.  Where a voice communication system is provided to gain entry to a building with dwelling units required to provide communication features, the system will have to be capable of supporting TTY communication.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that 25 percent of dwelling units required to provide communication features (495 units) will be in a building where a voice communication system is provided to gain entry to the building.

 

The revisions that affect Federal, State, and local government housing are summarized in Table 8.4.4.

 

Table 8.4.4 – Revisions That Affect Federal, State, and Local Government Housing (text version)

Revision

Assumptions: Percentage (Number) of Dwelling Units with Mobility Features or Communication Features Affected

Costs per Dwelling Unit Compared to

Current  Guidelines

IBC 2000 & 2003

Water Closet Clearance

25% (1,238) Dwelling Units with Mobility Features Have Bathrooms with  Out-Swing Doors

$286

$286

Shower Spray Controls

100% (4,950) Dwelling Units with Mobility Features Have to Provide Shower Spray Controls

$161

$161

Galley Kitchen Clearance

75% (3,713) Dwelling Units with Mobility Features Have Galley Kitchens

$993

$993

Doorbells with Audible and Visual Signals and Door Peepholes

50% (990) Dwelling Units with Communication Features Have Doorbells with Audible Signals and Door Peepholes

$96

$96

50% (990) Dwelling Units with Communication Features Have No Doorbell or Door Peephole

$322

$322

Voice Communication System at Entry Support TTY Communication

25% (495) Dwelling Units with Communication Features in Facilities with Voice Communication System at Entry to Site, Building, or Floor

$353

$353

 

8.4.3    Additional Costs for Federal, State, and Local Government Housing

 

For purposes of estimating the additional costs of the revisions for the construction of Federal, State, and local government housing, the assumptions summarized in Table 8.4.4 are applied, except that it is assumed that each dwelling unit with mobility features is affected by water closet clearance and galley kitchen clearance.  It is also assumed that each dwelling unit required to provide communication features will not have a doorbell or door peephole, and will be in buildings where a voice communication system is provided to gain entry to the building.  Federal, State, and local governments usually construct or alter housing as part of a project consisting of a number of dwelling units located on a common site or several sites.  The additional costs for dwelling units with mobility features and dwelling units with communication features will be incurred as part of the entire housing project costs.  Since most of the additional costs for the revisions are for dwelling units with mobility features and a minimum of 5 percent (or one in 20) dwelling units is required to provide mobility features, the additional costs of the revisions are shown in Table 8.4.5 as a percentage of the total construction costs for a housing project with 20 dwelling units. 

 

Table 8.4.5 – Additional Costs for Federal, State, and Local Government Housing (text version)

Dwelling Unit &

Project Costs

Additional Costs Compared to

(Percentage of Total Project Construction Costs)

Current Guidelines

IBC 2000 & 2003

Dwelling Unit with Mobility Features

$1,440

$1,440

Dwelling Unit with Communication Features

$675

$675

Project with 20 Dwelling Units

$2 million

$2,115

(0.01%)

$2,115

(0.01%)

 

8.4.4    National Costs for Federal, State, and Local Government Housing

 

For purposes of estimating the national costs of the revisions for the construction of Federal, State, and local government housing, the assumptions summarized in Table 8.4.4 regarding the number of dwelling units with mobility features and dwelling units with communication features affected by each revision are applied.  The national costs for the construction of Federal, State, and local government housing are shown in Table 8.4.6.

 

Table 8.4.6 – National Costs for Federal, State, and Local Government Housing (text version)

Revision

Assumptions: Number of Dwelling Units

with Mobility Features or

Communication Features Affected

National Costs Compared to

Current  Guidelines

Upper

Bound

IBC 2000

& 2003

Lower Bound

 

Water Closet Clearance

1,238 Dwelling Units with Mobility Features

 $354,068

 $354,068

Shower Spray Controls

4,950 Dwelling Units with Mobility Features

$796,950

$796,950

 

Galley Kitchen Clearance

3,713 Dwelling Units with Mobility Features

$3,687,009

$3,687,009

Doorbells with Audible and Visual Signals and Door Peepholes

990 Dwelling Units with Communication Features That Have Doorbells with Audible Signals and Door Peepholes

 $95,040

 $95,040

990 Dwelling Units with Communication Features That Have No Doorbell and No Door Peephole

 

$318,780

 

 $318,780

Voice Communication System at Entry Support TTY Communication

495 Dwelling Units with Communication Features in Facilities That Have Voice Communication System at Entry to Site, Building, or Floor

  

 

 

 

$174,735

  

 

 

 

$174,735

Total (Millions)

$5.4

$5.4

 

8.5  Other Large Facilities

 

Three of the revisions that have monetary impacts will affect the new construction and alterations of other large facilities.  The three revisions are summarized in Table 8.5.1.

 

Table 8.5.1 – Revisions That Affect New Construction

and Alterations of Other  Large Facilities (text version)

Revision &

Facilities Affected

 

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines &

International Building Code

 

Unit Cost

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

Facilities with more than 600 parking spaces.

One in every 8 accessible parking spaces required to be van accessible.

One in every 6 accessible parking spaces required to be van accessible.

 

IBC 2003: Equivalent requirement.

$344 for paving and striping 

3 additional feet of  access aisle in facilities with 601 to 3200 parking spaces

 

$344 for each additional 1800 parking spaces over 3200

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

 

Facilities with men’s toilet rooms that have 6 or more water closets and urinals, but fewer than 6 toilet compartments.

Toilet rooms with 6 or more toilet compartments required to provide ambulatory accessible toilet compartment with grab bars

Toilet rooms with 6 or more toilet compartments, or combination of 6 or more water closets and urinals, required to provide ambulatory accessible toilet compartment with grab bars.

 

IBC 2000 & 2003: Equivalent requirement.

$145 for grab bars

Public TTYs

 

Private facilities with 4 or more public telephones on more than one floor or in bank of telephones.

 

Government facilities with public telephone on more than one floor, or 4 or more public telephones in bank of telephones.

 

Bus and rail stations with fewer than 4 public telephones at entrance.

 

Public rest stops with public telephones.

Private facilities with 4 or more public telephones required to provide public TTY.

 

Government facilities with public telephone in public use area of building, required to provide public TTY.

 

Rail stations with 4 or more public telephones at entrance required to provide public TTY at entrance.

Private facilities required to provide public TTY in building with 4 or more public telephones, and on floor with 4 or more public telephones. 

 

Government facilities required to provide public TTY in building with public telephone, and on floor with public telephone.

 

Private facilities and government facilities required to provide public TTY in bank of 4 or more public telephones.  Banks of public telephones located within 200 feet of, and on the same floor as, another bank of telephones with public TTY exempt.

 

Private facilities and government facilities required to provide public TTY on exterior site with 4 or more public telephones.

 

Bus or rail stations with public telephone at entrance required to provide public TTY at entrance.

 

Public rest stops with public telephone required to provide public TTY.

 

IBC 2000 (Appendix E): Equivalent requirement for private facilities.

 

IBC 2003 (Appendix E): Equivalent requirement for private and government facilities.

$2,320 for public TTY

 

The costs of the three revisions for the construction of large office buildings, hotels, and hospitals are summarized in Tables 8.5.2 through 8.5.4.

 

Table 8.5.2 –Costs for Large Office Buildings (text version)

 

Revision

Facilities Affected Annually

National Costs

(Millions)

Percentage of Facility Construction Costs

Compared to Current Guidelines (Upper Bound)

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

200

 

$0.07

 

0.0006%

Ambulatory Accessible  Toilet Compartments

 

230

 

$0.62

 

0.0058%

Public TTYs

99

$0.23

0.0044%

Total

230

$0.92

0.0104%

Compared to IBC 2000 & 2003 (Lower Bound)

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

200

 

$0.00

 

0.0000%

Ambulatory Accessible  Toilet Compartments

 

230

 

$0.00

 

0.0000%

Public TTYs

99

$0.23

0.0044%

Total

230

$0.23

0.0044%

 

Table 8.5.3 – Costs for Large Hotels (text version)

 

Revision

Facilities Affected Annually

National Costs

(Millions)

Percentage of Facility Construction Costs

Compared to Current Guidelines (Upper Bound)

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

33

 

$0.01

 

0.0004% to 0.0011%

Ambulatory Accessible  Toilet Compartments

 

33

 

$0.00

 

0.0004%

Public TTYs

33

$0.10

0.0057% to 0.0077%

Total

33

$0.11

0.0065% to 0.0093%

Compared to IBC 2000 & 2003 (Lower Bound)

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

33

 

$0.00

 

0.0000%

Ambulatory Accessible  Toilet Compartments

 

33

 

$0.00

 

0.0000%

Public TTYs

33

$0.10

0.0057% to 0.0077%

Total

33

$0.10

0.0057% to 0.0077%

 

Table 8.5.4 –Costs for Large Hospitals (text version)

 

Revision

Facilities Affected Annually

National Costs

(Millions)

Percentage of Facility Construction Costs

Compared to Current Guidelines (Upper Bound)

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

1,425

 

$0.49

 

0.0004%

Ambulatory Accessible  Toilet Compartments

 

0

 

$0.00

 

0.0000%

Public TTYs

0

$0.00

0.0000%

Total

1,425

$0.49

0.0004%

Compared to IBC 2000 & 2003 (Lower Bound)

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

1,425

 

$0.00

 

0.0000%

Ambulatory Accessible  Toilet Compartments

 

0

 

$0.00

 

0.0000%

Public TTYs

0

$0.00

0.0000%

Total

1,425

$0.00

0.0000%

 

The costs of the three revisions for the construction of these large facilities are insignificant compared to the total construction costs of the facilities.  This disaggregated analysis of the cost of the three revisions for the construction of these large facilities provides a defendable estimate of the costs of the revisions for the construction of other large facilities.  The revisions discussed in Chapter 5 that reduce impacts will also offset the additional costs of the three revisions for the construction of some other larger facilities.  For example, the additional costs for van accessible parking spaces, ambulatory accessible toilet compartments, and public TTYs will be offset in sports stadiums by the reduced scoping requirements for wheelchair spaces; in shopping malls by the deletion of the scoping requirement for detectable warnings at hazardous vehicular areas; in colleges and universities by the exception permitting the number of required receivers for assistive listening systems to be calculated based on the total number of seats in assembly areas in the building; and in high schools by the exception for accessible routes to small press boxes.

 

In addition, when compared to the International Building Code, the only costs are for public TTYs.  In States that have adopted Appendix E to the International Building Code, which includes an equivalent requirement for public TTYs, there is no additional cost. 

 

8.6  Economically Significant Regulatory Action

 

This chapter estimates the national costs of the revisions for the construction of facilities that are likely to experience relatively higher costs than other facilities as shown in Table 8.6.1.[228]

 

Table 8.6.1 – National Costs for Facilities Likely to Experience Relatively Higher Costs (text version)

Facility

National Costs Compared to

Current Guidelines

Upper Bound

IBC 2000 & 2003

Lower Bound

Office Buildings

$1.5 million

$0.7 million

Hotels

$6.2 million

$4.1 million

Hospitals & Nursing Homes

$13.6 million

$2.9 million

Government Housing

$5.4 million

$5.4 million

Total

$26.7 million

$13.1 million

 

The final revised guidelines will affect the new construction and alterations of other types of facilities not discussed in this chapter.  The Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin reports that the value of non-residential building construction projects started in 2002 was $152 billion.  The Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place reports that the value of non-residential building construction work, and Federal, State, and local government housing construction work installed in 2002 was $270 billion.  In order to be considered an economically significant regulatory action with an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more, the final revised guidelines would need to have impacts totaling from 0.04 percent to 0.07 percent of the construction costs reported in the Dodge Construction Potentials Bulletin and the Census Bureau Annual Value of Construction Put in Place.  These impacts are insignificant for an individual facility, but when added together across the economy are economically significant. 

 

In addition, there are benefits that result from this regulatory action that cannot be quantified, but are substantial.  As discussed in Chapter 3, the harmonization of the final revised guidelines with the International Building Code and the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities will greatly facilitate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act, and reduce the likelihood of mistakes that can result in litigation and costly retrofitting of facilities.  As discussed in Chapter 5, the final revised guidelines also revise some existing scoping and technical requirements that will reduce the impacts on many facilities.

 

Because an extremely low threshold of impacts on individual facilities can render the final revised guidelines an economically significant regulatory action, and because the benefits of the final revised guidelines are unquantifiable but substantial, the Access Board has classified the final revised guidelines as an economically significant regulatory action.