CHAPTER 7:  REVISIONS THAT HAVE MONETARY IMPACTS

7.0  Introduction

 

This chapter discusses revisions to the scoping and technical requirements that will have monetary impacts on the new construction and alterations of facilities.  The relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines is presented in tables.  Unless otherwise noted, the current guidelines refer to ADAAG.  The requirements are presented in the order in which they appear in the final revised guidelines.  Scoping and technical requirements are presented together, where appropriate.  The text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines is underlined to highlight the revisions in the scoping and technical requirements.  Equivalent requirements in the International Building Code and the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Standard on Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities are also noted in the tables.[150]

 

The unit cost is estimated for each revision that has monetary impacts.[151]  The unit cost is an estimated average cost and includes labor, overhead, and mark-up for construction contingencies.  The facilities that will be primarily affected by the revisions are identified.  The impacts of the revisions on alterations to existing facilities are also examined by answering these questions:[152]

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered?

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area?[153]

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility?

7.1  Location of Accessible Routes to Stages

 

Table 7.1 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for the location of accessible routes to stages. 

 

 Table 7.1 – Accessible Routes to Stages

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.33.5  Access to Performing Areas. 

An accessible route shall connect wheelchair seating locations with performing areas, including stages, arena floors, dressing rooms, locker rooms, and other spaces used by performers.

206.2.6  Performance Areas.  Where a circulation path directly connects a performance area to an assembly seating area, an accessible route shall directly connect the assembly seating area with the performance area.  An accessible route shall be provided from performance areas to ancillary areas or facilities used by performers unless exempted by 206.2.3 Exceptions 1 through 7.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1104.5 has a similar requirement for accessible routes.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1108.2.8 has an equivalent requirement for accessible routes to stages.

 

The current guidelines require an accessible route to connect the seating area and the stage.  The final revised guidelines require the accessible route to directly connect the seating area and the stage, where a circulation path directly connects the seating area and the stage.  The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines also require an accessible route to connect the stage and ancillary areas used by performers such as dressing rooms. 

 

The final revised guidelines do not require an additional accessible route to be provided to the stage.  Rather, the final revised guidelines specify where the accessible route to the stage, which is required by the current guidelines, must be located.  All stages do not have circulation paths that directly connect to the seating area.  Stages that regularly host live performances are likely to have direct connections.  Where direct connections are provided, they usually consist of fixed or built-in stairs.[154] 

 

Where a circulation path directly connects the seating area and the stage, the design choices for providing an accessible route that directly connects both areas are largely a function of the size of the facility.  Larger facilities can incorporate a ramp into the design of cross-aisles, calipers, or side stages to directly connect the seating area and the stage.  A platform lift may be the only design solution for a smaller facility.  Platform lifts raise aesthetic concerns when used in performing arts centers.  These concerns can be addressed by locating the platform lift to the side of the seating area or the stage, or concealing the platform lift behind an enclosure. 

 

The impacts of the revision on newly constructed facilities that provide a circulation path directly connecting the seating area and the stage will vary depending on the specific design of the facility.

 

  • Facilities that would comply with the accessible route requirement in the current guidelines by providing a platform lift will not incur any additional costs other than for locating the platform lift near the seating area.

 

  • Facilities that would comply with the accessible route requirement in the current guidelines by providing a ramp will not incur any additional costs other than for designing the ramp so that it directly connects the seating area and the stage.

 

  • Facilities that would comply with the accessible route requirement in the current guidelines without providing a platform lift or a ramp will incur additional costs for a platform lift or a ramp to directly connect the seating area and the stage.  The estimated average cost for a platform lift is $15,674.  The costs for the ramp will depend on the design.

 

The 2000 edition of the International Building Code requires an accessible route to coincide with or be located in the same general area as the general circulation path, and has the same effect as the final revised guidelines when applied to stages.  The 2003 edition of the International Building Code has an equivalent scoping requirement for accessible routes to stages.  Facilities that are required to comply with the 2000 or 2003 edition of the International Building Code will not incur any additional costs to comply with the revised scoping requirement for the location of accessible routes to stages.

 

The revision will primarily affect newly constructed performing arts centers and auditoriums that have circulation paths directly connecting the seating area and the stage. 

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered? 
    Circulation paths to existing stages are not typically altered.  

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area? 
    If an existing stage is altered and there is no accessible route to the stage, then an accessible route would have to be provided to the stage to the extent that the costs of providing an accessible “path of travel” do not exceed 20 percent of the costs of the alterations to the stage.  The costs for providing an accessible route to the stage would be incurred under the current guidelines.  If a circulation path directly connects the seating area and the stage, then the costs for designing the accessible route to directly connect both areas would be attributable to the final revised guidelines. 

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility? 
    It may not be feasible to design a ramp to directly connect the seating area and the stage in existing facilities due to existing physical or site constraints.  A platform lift may be the only design solution in existing facilities.

 

7.2  Standby Power for Platform Lifts[155]

 

Table 7.2 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirement for standby power for platform lifts.

 

Table 7.2 – Standby Power for Platform Lifts (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

No requirement.

207.2  Platform Lifts.  Standby power shall be provided for platform lifts permitted by section 1003.2.13.4 of the International Building Code (2000 edition and 2001 Supplement) or section 1007 of the International Building Code (2003 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1) to serve as a part of an accessible means of egress.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  No requirement.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1007.5 has an equivalent requirement for standby power for platform lifts that are part of an accessible means of egress. 

 

The final revised guidelines require standby power to be provided for platform lifts that are permitted to serve as part of an accessible means of egress by the International Building Code.  The International Building Code permits platform lifts to serve as part of an accessible means of egress in a limited number of places where platform lifts are allowed in new construction.[156] 

 

The impacts of the revision on newly constructed facilities that are permitted to use platform lifts will vary depending on the source of the standby power.

 

  • Building codes and fire and life safety codes require certain facilities to provide a standby power source for fire protection systems.  Where a building standby power source is provided, the facility will incur additional costs for wiring to connect the platform lift to the standby power circuit.

 

  • Some platform lifts use a direct current (DC) power source.  The platform lifts are charged by an external alternating current (AC) power source and are equipped with a battery for storing DC power.  Facilities that use a platform lift with a DC power source will not incur any additional costs.

 

  • Facilities that do not provide a standby power source or do not use a platform lift with a DC power source will incur additional costs for a back-up battery.  The estimated average cost for a back-up battery with a 90 minute power supply is $2,353.[157] 

 

The 2003 edition of the International Building Code has an equivalent scoping requirement for standby power for platform lifts that are part of an accessible means of egress.  Facilities that are required to comply with the 2003 edition of the International Building Code will not incur any additional costs to comply with the revised scoping requirement for standby power for platform lifts that serve as part of an accessible means of egress.

The revision will primarily affect newly constructed performing arts centers and auditoriums that use platform lifts to provide an accessible route to the stage.  Platform lifts are rarely used in the other places permitted in new construction. 

 

The revision will not impact alterations to existing facilities since accessible means of egress are not required in existing facilities that are altered.[158] 

 

7.3  Van Accessible Parking Spaces[159]

 

Table 7.3.1 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for van accessible parking spaces. 

 

Table 7.3.1 – Van Accessible Parking Spaces (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.2  Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities:  New Construction.  An accessible site shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(5) (b)  One in every eight accessible spaces but not less than one, shall be served by an access aisle 96 in (2440 mm) wide minimum and shall be designated “van accessible” as required by 4.6.4. . . .

 

4.6.3  Parking Spaces.  Accessible parking spaces shall be at least 96 in (2440 mm) wide. . . .  Two accessible parking spaces may share a common access aisle (see Fig. 9). . . .

 

4.6.4  Signage.  Accessible parking spaces shall be designated as reserved by a sign showing the symbol of accessibility. . . . Spaces complying with 4.1.2 (5) (b) shall have an additional sign “Van Accessible” mounted below the symbol of accessibility.

 

4.6.5  Vertical Clearance.  . . .  At parking spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b), provide minimum vertical clearance of 98 in (2490 mm) at the parking space and along  at least one vehicle access route to such spaces from site entrance(s) and exit(s).

208.2.4  Van Parking Spaces.  For every six or fraction of six parking spaces required by 208.2 to comply with 502, at least one shall be a van parking space complying with 502. 

 

502.2  Vehicle Spaces.  Car parking spaces shall be 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum and van parking spaces shall be 132 inches (3350 mm) wide minimum, shall be marked to define the width, and shall have an adjacent access aisle complying with 502.3.

Exception:  Van parking spaces shall be permitted to be 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum where the access aisle is 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum. 

 

502.3  Access Aisle.  . . .  Two parking spaces shall be permitted to share a common access aisle.

 

502.3.1  Width.  Access aisles serving car and van parking spaces shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum.

 

502.3.2  Length.  Access aisles shall extend the full length of the parking spaces they serve.

 

502.3.3  Marking.  Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

 

502.4  Floor or Ground Surfaces.  Parking spaces and access aisles serving them shall comply with 302.  Access aisles shall be at the same level as the parking spaces they serve.  Changes in level are not permitted. 

Exception:  Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

 

502.5  Vertical Clearance.  Parking spaces for vans, access aisles, and vehicular routes serving them shall provide a vertical clearance of 98 inches (2490 mm) minimum.

 

502.6  Identification.  Parking space identification signs shall include the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1.  Signs identifying van parking spaces shall contain the designation “van accessible.” . . .

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1106.4 has a similar requirement for the number of van accessible parking spaces.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1106.5 has an equivalent requirement for the number of van accessible parking spaces.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 502.2 has similar requirements for the size of van accessible parking spaces.

 

The current guidelines require one in every eight accessible parking spaces to be van accessible.  The final revised guidelines require one in every six accessible parking spaces to be van accessible.[160]  Van accessible parking spaces are 3 feet wider than accessible parking spaces as shown in Table 7.3.2. 

 

Table 7.3.2 – Parking Space Width in Feet (text version)

 

Accessible Parking Space

Van Accessible Parking Space

Parking Space

Access

Aisle

Total

Width

Parking

Space

Access

Aisle

Total

Width

Current Guidelines

8

5

13

8

8

16

Final Revised Guidelines

8

5

13

11

5

16

or 8

or 8

16

 

The impacts of the revision on newly constructed parking facilities will vary depending on the size of the facility and work involved.

 

  • Facilities with 600 or fewer parking spaces will not incur any additional costs, where van accessible parking spaces with 8 feet wide access aisles are provided and two van accessible parking spaces share a common access aisle.[161]

 

  • Facilities with 601 to 3200 parking spaces will have to widen one access aisle by 3 feet, where van accessible parking spaces with 8 feet wide access aisles are provided and two van accessible parking spaces share a common access aisle.[162]  For each additional 1800 parking spaces over 3200, an additional access aisle will have to be widened by 3 feet.  The estimated average cost for widening an access aisle by 3 feet is $73 if only additional striping is needed, and $344 if additional paving and stripping is needed.[163]

 

The 2003 edition of the International Building Code has an equivalent scoping requirement for van accessible parking spaces.  Facilities that are required to comply with the 2003 edition of the International Building Code will not incur any additional costs to comply with the revised scoping requirement for van accessible parking spaces. 

 

The revision will primarily affect newly constructed parking facilities with more than 600 parking spaces. 

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing parking facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered? 
    Resurfacing or restriping an existing parking facility is considered an alteration.
    [164]  If an existing parking facility is resurfaced or restriped and does not have the required number of accessible parking spaces, including van accessible parking spaces, then the required number of accessible parking spaces would have to be provided.  Only the costs for providing van accessible parking spaces in addition to the number required under the current guidelines would be attributable to the final revised guidelines.  Existing parking facilities will have to provide signs to identify the additional van accessible parking spaces required by the revised final guidelines.  The estimated average cost for a sign is $50. 

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area? 
    Parking spaces are part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area.
    [165]  If a primary function area in an existing facility is altered and the parking facility serving the primary function area does not have any accessible parking spaces, then accessible parking spaces would have to be provided to the extent the costs of providing an accessible “path of travel” do not exceed 20 percent of the costs of the alterations to the primary function area.  Most of the costs for providing accessible parking spaces will be incurred under the current guidelines.  Only the costs for providing van accessible parking spaces in addition to the number required under the current guidelines would be attributable to the final revised guidelines.

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility? 
    Existing parking facilities are not required to increase the size of the facility to provide additional van accessible parking spaces.  Where existing physical or site constraints limit the number of van accessible parking spaces that can be provided, a parking facility may need to provide one less parking space in order to provide an additional van accessible parking space.  In existing multi-level parking garages with low ceilings and sloped floors, it may not be feasible to provide the required vertical clearance (98 inches minimum) or level surface (slopes not steeper than 1:48) for additional van accessible parking spaces because it would involve altering a load-bearing structural member which is an essential part of the structural frame, or existing physical or site constraints.

7.4  Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

 

Table 7.4 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for ambulatory accessible toilet compartments. 

 

Table 7.4 – Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.23.4  Water Closets.  If toilet stalls are provided, then at least one shall be a standard toilet stall  complying with 4.17; where 6 or more stalls are provided, in addition to the stall complying with 4.17.3, at least one stall 36 in (915 mm) wide with an outward swing, self-closing door and parallel grab bars complying with  Fig. 30 (d) and 4.26 shall be provided. . . .

 

[Note:  Figure 30 (d) shows grab bars 42 inches long minimum, located 12 inches maximum from the rear wall.]

213.3.1  Toilet Compartments.  Where toilet compartments are provided, at least one toilet compartment shall comply with 604.8.1.  In addition to the compartment required to comply with 604.8.1, at least one compartment shall comply with 604.8.2 where six or more toilet compartments are provided, or where the combination of urinals and water closets totals six or more fixtures. 

 

604.8.2.1  Size.  Ambulatory accessible compartments shall have a depth of  60 inches (1525 mm) minimum and a width of 35 inches (890 mm) minimum and 37 inches (940 mm) maximum.

 

604.8.2.3  Grab Bars.  Grab bars shall comply with 609.  A side-wall grab bar complying with 604.5.1 shall be provided on both sides of the compartment.

 

604.5.1  Side Wall.  The side wall grab bar shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) long minimum, located 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear wall and extending 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum from the rear wall.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1108.2.2 has an equivalent requirement for ambulatory accessible toilet compartments.

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.2.2 has an equivalent requirement for ambulatory accessible toilet compartments.

 

The current guidelines require at least one ambulatory accessible toilet compartment in toilet rooms where six or more toilet compartments are provided.  The final revised guidelines require at least one ambulatory accessible toilet compartment in toilet rooms where six or more toilet compartments are provided, or where six or more water closets and urinals are provided. 

 

The plumbing codes specify the minimum number of plumbing fixtures required in various types of facilities based on the number of occupants.  The plumbing codes require separate toilet rooms to be provided for men and women, and usually specify that an equal number of the required plumbing fixtures be provided for each sex.  In men’s toilet rooms, the plumbing codes usually specify the required number of plumbing fixtures that must be urinals, or permit urinals to be substituted for water closets. 

 

The final revised guidelines allow for parity in the scoping requirements for ambulatory accessible toilet compartments in men’s and women’s toilet rooms by including urinals in the plumbing fixture count.  Under the final revised guidelines, if a women’s toilet room has six water closets, and a men’s toilet room in the same facility has four water closets and two urinals, both toilet rooms would be required to provide at least one ambulatory accessible toilet compartment.  The current guidelines require the women’s toilet room, but not the men’s toilet room, to provide at least one ambulatory accessible toilet compartment.

 

The final revised guidelines require ambulatory accessible toilet compartments to be between 35 inches and 37 inches wide and at least 60 inches deep, and to have grab bars at least 42 inches long on each side of the compartment.  The plumbing codes usually require toilet compartments to be at least 30 inches wide and 60 inches deep.  The increase in the width of the ambulatory accessible toilet compartment will not add to construction costs.  The only additional cost is for the two grab bars on the side walls of the ambulatory accessible toilet compartment.  The estimated average cost for grab bars is $145.

 

The 2000 and 2003 editions of the International Building Code have an equivalent scoping requirement for ambulatory accessible toilet compartments.  Facilities that are required to comply with the 2000 or 2003 editions of the International Building Code will not incur any additional costs to comply with the revised scoping requirement for ambulatory accessible toilet compartments.

 

The revision will primarily affect newly constructed facilities with men’s toilet rooms that have six or more water closets and urinals, but fewer than six toilet compartments. 

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered? 
    Toilet compartments are not typically altered.

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area? 
    Toilet rooms are part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area.
    [166]  If a primary function area in an existing facility is altered and the toilet rooms serving the primary function area are not accessible, then accessible toilet rooms would have to be provided to the extent the costs of providing an accessible “path of travel” does not exceed 20 percent of the costs of the alterations to the primary function area.  Most of the costs for providing the accessible toilet rooms will be incurred under the current guidelines.  Only the costs of providing an ambulatory accessible toilet compartment in men’s toilet rooms with six or more water closets or urinals, but fewer than six water closets, would be attributable to the final revised guidelines.

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility?  
    Adding grab bars to a toilet compartment to provide an ambulatory accessible toilet compartment will not usually involve technical infeasibility.

 

7.5  Public TTYS[167]

 

Table 7.5 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping requirements for public TTYs. 

 

Table 7.5 – Public TTYs (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.1.3  Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements: . . .

 

(17)  Public Telephones. . . .

 

(c)  The following shall be provided in accordance with 4.31.9.

 

(i)  If four or more public pay telephones (including both interior and exterior telephones) are provided at a site of a private facility, and at least one is at an interior location, then at least one interior public text telephone (TTY) shall be provided.  If an interior public pay telephone is provided in a public use area in a building of a public facility, at least one interior public text telephone (TTY) shall be provided in the building in a public use area.

 

(ii)  If an interior public pay telephone is provided in a private facility that is a stadium or arena, a convention center, a hotel with a convention center, or a covered mall, at least one interior public text telephone (TTY) shall be provided in the facility.  In stadiums, arenas, and convention centers which are public facilities, at least one public text telephone (TTY) shall be provided on each floor level having at least one interior public pay telephone.

 

(iii)  If a public pay telephone is located in or adjacent to a hospital emergency room, hospital recovery room, or hospital waiting room, one public text telephone (TTY) shall be provided at each such location.

 

(iv)  If an interior public pay telephone is provided in the secured area of a detention or correctional facility subject to section 12, then at least one public text telephone (TTY) shall also be provided in at least one secured area.

 

10.3.1  New Construction.  New stations in rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity bus, intercity rail, high speed rail, and other fixed guideway systems (e.g., automated guideway transit, monorails, etc.) shall comply with the following provisions, as applicable: . . .

 

(12)  Text Telephones:  . . .

 

(a)  If an interior public pay telephone is provided in a transit facility (as defined by the Department of  Transportation)  at least one interior public text telephone shall be provided in the station.

 

(b)  Where four or more public pay telephones serve a particular entrance to a rail station and at least one is in an interior location, at least one interior public text telephone shall be provided to serve that entrance.  Compliance with this section constitutes compliance with 4.1.3 (17) (c).

 

10.4  Airports

 

10.4.1  New Construction

(4)  Where public pay telephones are provided, and at least one is at an interior location, a public text telephone (TTY) shall be provided in compliance with 4.31.9.  Additionally, if four or more public pay telephones are located in any of the following locations, at least one public text telephone (TTY) shall also be provided in that location:

 

(a)  a main terminal outside the security areas;

 

(b)  a concourse within the security areas; or

 

(c)  a baggage claim area in a terminal.

Compliance with this section constitutes compliance with 4.1.3 (17) (c).

217.4  TTYs.  TTYs complying with 704.4 shall be provided in accordance with 217.4

 

217.4.1  Bank Requirement.  Where four or more public pay telephones are provided at a bank of telephones, at least one public TTY complying with 704.4 shall be provided at that bank.

Exception:  TTYs shall not be required at banks of telephones located within 200 feet (61 m) of, and on the same floor as, a bank containing a public TTY.

 

217.4.2  Floor Requirement.  TTYs in public buildings shall be provided in accordance with 217.4.2.1.  TTYs in private buildings shall be provided in accordance with 217.4.2.2.

 

217.4.2.1  Public Buildings.  Where at least one public pay telephone is provided on a floor of a public building, at least one public TTY shall be provided on that floor.

 

217.4.2.2  Private Buildings.  Where four or more public pay telephones are provided on a floor of a private building, at least one public TTY shall be provided on that floor.

 

217.4.3  Building Requirement.  TTYs in public buildings shall be provided in accordance with 217.4.3.1.  TTYs in private buildings shall be provided in accordance with 217.4.3.2.

 

217.4.3.1  Public Buildings.  Where at least one public pay telephone is provided in a public building, at least one public TTY shall be provided in the building.  Where at least one public pay telephone is provided in a public use area of a public building, at least one public TTY shall be provided in the public building in a public use area.

 

217.4.3.2  Private Buildings.  Where four or more public pay telephones are provided in a private building, at least one public TTY shall be provided in the building.

 

217.4.4  Exterior Site Requirement.  Where four or more public pay telephones are provided on an exterior site, at least one public TTY shall be provided on the site.

 

217.4.5  Rest Stops, Emergency Roadside Stops, and Service Plazas.  Where at least one public pay telephone is provided at a public rest stop, emergency roadside stop, or service plaza, at least one public TTY shall be provided.

 

217.4.6  Hospitals.  Where at least one public pay telephone is provided serving a hospital emergency room, hospital recovery room, or hospital waiting room, at least one public TTY shall be provided at each location.

 

217.4.7  Transportation Facilities.  In transportation facilities, in addition to the requirements of 217.4.1 through 217.4.4, where at least one public pay telephone serves a particular entrance to a bus or rail facility, at least one public TTY shall be provided to serve that entrance.  In airports, in addition to the requirements of 217.4.1 through 217.4.4, where four or more public pay telephones are located in a terminal outside the security areas, a concourse within the security areas, or a baggage claim area in a terminal, at least one public TTY shall be provided in each location.

 

217.4.8  Detention and Correctional Facilities.  In detention and correctional facilities, where at least one pay telephone is provided in a secured area used only by detainees or inmates and security personnel, at least one TTY shall be provided in at least one secured area.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section E1106.4 of Appendix E has equivalent requirements for public TTYs in private facilities.

 

IBC 2003:  Section E106.4 of Appendix E has equivalent requirements for public TTYs in private facilities and government facilities.

 

The current guidelines and the final revised guidelines have scoping requirements for public TTYs in private facilities and government facilities.

 

The current guidelines require private facilities to provide at least one public TTY in an interior location, where four or more public pay telephones are provided on a site and at least one is in an interior location.  The final revised guidelines require private facilities to provide at least one public TTY:

 

  • In a building that has four or more public pay telephones; and

 

  • On a floor that has four or more public pay telephones.

 

The current guidelines require government facilities to provide at least one public TTY in an interior location, where a public pay telephone is provided in a public use area in a building.  The final revised guidelines require government facilities to provide at least one public TTY:

 

  • In a building that has at least one public pay telephone (where a public pay telephone is provided in a public use area, a public TTY is required in a public use area); and

 

  • On a floor that has at least one public pay telephone.

 

The final revised guidelines also require private facilities and government facilities to provide at least one public TTY:

 

  • In a bank of four or more public pay telephones (banks of telephones located within 200 feet of, and on the same floor as, another bank of telephones containing a public TTY are exempt); and

 

  • On an exterior site that has four or more public pay telephones.

 

The current guidelines and the final guidelines have additional scoping requirements for public TTYs in hospitals, airports, bus and rail stations, and detention and correctional facilities.  The scoping requirements for public TTYs in these facilities are the same in the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines, except for bus and rail stations which are required to provide a public TTY at an entrance to the station where a public pay telephone is provided at the entrance under the final revised guidelines.  The final revised guidelines also require a public TTY at public rest stops that have a public pay telephone.  The estimated average cost for a public TTY is $2,320. 

 

Appendix E to the 2000 edition of the International Building Code has equivalent scoping requirements for public TTYs in private facilities.  Appendix E to the 2003 edition of the International Building Code has equivalent scoping requirements for public TTYs in privatee facilities and government facilities.  State and local governments that adopt the International Building Code must specifically reference Appendix E in the adopting legislation or regulations to make the scoping requirements in that appendix mandatory.  Facilities in jurisdictions where State or local governments have specifically referenced Appendix E in the legislation or regulations adopting the 2000 or 2003 editions of the International Building Code will not incur any additional costs to comply with the revised scoping requirements for public TTYs.

 

The revision will primarily affect newly constructed private facilities that have four or more public pay telephones on more than one floor of a building, or in a bank of telephones; newly constructed government facilities that have a public pay telephone on more than one floor of a building, or four or more public pay telephones in a bank of telephones; newly constructed bus and rail stations that have a public pay telephone at an entrance to the facility; and newly constructed public rest stops.

 

The impacts of the revisions on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered?
    If public pay telephones are replaced or new public pay telephones are added to an existing facility, public TTYs would have to be provided in accordance with the scoping requirements.  Only the costs for providing public TTYs in addition to the number required under the current guidelines would be attributable to the final revised guidelines.

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area?
    Public pay telephones are part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area.
    [168]  If a primary function area in an existing facility is altered and the public pay telephones serving the primary function area are not accessible, then accessible public pay telephones would have to be provided to the extent the costs of providing an accessible “path of travel” does not exceed 20 percent of the costs of the alterations to the primary function area.  The costs of providing wheelchair accessible public telephones and, depending on the number of public pay telephones provided at the site or the facility, a public TTY will be incurred under the current guidelines.  Only the costs for providing public TTYs in addition to the number required under the current guidelines would be attributable to the final revised guidelines.

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility?
    Providing a public TTY in an existing facility will not usually involve technical infeasibility. 

7.6  Operable Windows

 

Table 7.6 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for operable windows. 

 

Table 7.6 – Operable Windows (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

No requirement.

229.1  General.  Where glazed openings are provided in accessible rooms or spaces for operation by occupants, at least one opening shall comply with 309.  Each glazed opening required by an administrative authority to be operable shall comply with 309.

Exceptions: 1.  Glazed openings in residential dwellings units required to comply with 809 shall not be required to comply with 229.

2.  Glazed openings in guest rooms required to provide communication features and in guest rooms required to comply with 206.5.3 shall not be required to comply with 229.

 

309.1  General.  Operable parts shall comply with 309.

 

309.3  Height.  Operable  parts shall be placed within one or more of the reach ranges specified in 308.

 

[Note:  The high forward or side reach is 48 inches maximum where the reach is unobstructed.]

 

309.4  Operation.  Operable parts shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist.  The force required to activate operable parts shall be 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum. . . .

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  Section 1108.13.1 has an equivalent requirement for operable windows in accessible rooms in certain institutional and residential occupancies, including hotel guest rooms and patient sleeping rooms in hospitals and nursing homes. 

 

IBC 2003:  Section 1109.13.1 has an equivalent requirement for operable windows in accessible rooms in certain institutional and residential occupancies, including hotel guest rooms and patient sleeping rooms in hospitals and nursing homes.

 

The current guidelines do not have any scoping requirement for operable windows.  The final revised guidelines require that, where windows are provided in accessible rooms and are intended to be opened by the occupants, at least one window meet the technical requirements for operable parts.  If a building code or fire or life safety code requires a window in an accessible room to be operable, then the window is required to meet the technical requirements for operable parts.  The final revised guidelines contain an exception that exempts windows in dwelling units, and in hotel guest rooms that are not required to provide mobility features. 

 

The technical requirements for operable parts require the parts to be no higher than 48 inches from the floor; and to be operable with one hand and not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist.  The maximum force to activate an operable part is 5 pounds.  Hardware that meets the technical requirements for operable parts is available for sliding or double hung windows.[169]  The estimated average cost for the hardware is $505 per window. 

 

The 2000 and 2003 editions of the International Building Code have an equivalent scoping requirement for accessible rooms in certain institutional and residential occupancies, including hotel guest rooms and patient sleeping rooms in hospitals and nursing homes.  Facilities that are required to comply with the 2000 or 2003 editions of the International Building Code will not incur any additional costs to comply with the revised scoping requirement for operable windows.

 

The revision will primarily affect newly constructed hotel guest rooms and patient sleeping rooms with mobility features.  Windows in employee work areas are not required to be accessible.  Windows in most other types of facilities are intended for use by service or maintenance personnel, and not the occupants.

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered? 
    Windows are not typically altered.

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area?  
    Windows are not part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area. 

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibilty?  
    Adding hardware to a window to meet the technical requirements for operable parts will not usually involve technical infeasibility. 

 

7.7  Two-Way Communication Systems

 

Table 7.7 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the scoping and technical requirements for two-way communication systems. 

 

Table 7.7 – Two-Way Communication Systems (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

No requirement.

230.1  General.  Where a two-way communication system is provided to gain admittance to a building or facility or to restricted areas within a building or facility, the system shall comply with 708.

 

708.1  General.  Two-way communication systems shall comply with 708.

 

708.2  Audible and Visual Indicators.  The system shall provide both audible and visual signals.

 

708.3  Handsets.  Handset cords, if provided, shall be 29 inches (735 mm) long minimum.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  No requirement for two-way communication systems.

 

IBC 2003:  Section E105.7 of Appendix E has an equivalent scoping requirement for two-way communication systems, but ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998 has no technical requirement for such systems.

 

The current guidelines do not have any scoping and technical requirements for two-way communication systems at entrances.  The final revised guidelines require two-way communication systems used to gain admission to a facility (other than a residential facility) or a restricted area within a facility to be equipped with audible and visible signals.  Two-way communication systems are typically used to allow visitors to announce their presence; and a person at an interior location such as a security desk or reception area to acknowledge receipt of the announcement and remotely admit the visitor.  Most two-way communication systems currently in use provide audible signals only.  The estimated average cost for adding visual signals to two-way communication systems is $1,392.

 

The revision will primarily affect newly constructed buildings that have two-way communication systems at entrances to restrict access by the public.

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered? 
    If a two-way communications system in an existing facility is replaced or a new two-way communications system is added, then the system would have to provide audible and visual signals.

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area? 
    Two-way communication systems are not addressed in the Department of Justice’s regulations defining “path of travel.”

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility?  
    Providing audible and visual signals for a two-way communication system in an existing facility will not usually involve technical infeasibility. 

 

7.8  Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors

 

Table 7.8 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirement for maneuvering clearance or standby power for automatic doors. 

 

Table 7.8 – Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.13.6  Maneuvering Clearances at Doors.  Minimum maneuvering clearances at doors that are not automatic or power-assisted shall be as shown in Fig. 25.

404.3.2  Maneuvering Clearance.  . . . Clearances at automatic doors and gates without standby power and serving an accessible means of egress shall comply with 404.2.4.

Exception:  Where automatic doors and gates remain open in the power-off condition, compliance with 404.2.4 shall not be required.

Model Codes & Standards

No requirement for maneuvering clearance or standby power for automatic doors.

 

The current guidelines do not require maneuvering clearance at automatic doors.  The final revised guidelines require automatic doors that serve as an accessible means of egress to either provide maneuvering clearance or to have standby power to operate the door in emergencies.  The revision has limited application and will affect in-swinging automatic doors that serve small spaces with an occupant load of less than 50 persons.[170] 

 

Building codes and fire and life safety codes require certain facilities to provide a standby power source for fire protection systems.  Where a building standby power source is provided, the facility will incur additional costs for wiring to connect the automatic door to the standby power circuit.  The estimated average cost for a back-up battery with a 90 minute power supply is $2,353.[171] 

 

The revision will not impact alterations to existing facilities since accessible means of egress are not required in existing facilities that are altered.[172] 

 

7.9  Power Operated Doors for Platform Lifts[173]

 

Table 7.9 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirement for power operated doors for platform lifts. 

 

Table 7.9 – Power Operated Doors for Platform Lifts (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.13.1  Doors.  Doors required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with the requirements of 4.13.

 

4.13.6  Maneuvering Clearances at Doors.  Minimum maneuvering clearances at doors that are not automatic or power assisted shall be as shown in Fig.25.

410.6  Doors and Gates.  Platform lifts shall have low-energy power-operated doors or gates complying with 404.3.  . . .

Exception:  Platform lifts serving two landings maximum and having doors or gates on opposite sides shall be permitted to have self-closing manual doors or gates.

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 408.2 has a similar requirement for power operated doors on platform lifts.

 

The current guidelines require doors on platform lifts to provide maneuvering clearance, or to be power operated.  The final revised guidelines require platform lifts to provide power operated doors, but permit platform lifts that serve no more than two landings and that have doors on opposite sides to provide self-closing manual doors. 

 

The revision has limited application and will affect platform lifts that serve more than two landings or that do not have self-closing manual doors on opposite sides.  Platform lifts typically serve only two landings and have self-closing manual doors on opposite sides.  The estimated average cost for power operated doors on platform lifts is $569.  The 2000 and 2003 editions of the International Building Code reference the ICC/ANSI A117.1 standard which has a similar requirement for power operated doors on platform lifts.  Facilities that are required to comply with the 2000 and 2003 editions of the International Building Code will not incur any additional costs to comply with the revised technical requirement for power operated doors for platform lifts.

 

The impacts of the revisions on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered?
    If a platform lift in an existing facility is replaced or a new platform lift is added, and the platform lift serves more than two landings or does not have self-closing manual doors on opposite sides, then the platform lift would have to provide power operated doors.

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” to a primary function area?
    If a primary function area in an existing facility is altered, and there is no accessible route to the primary function, and a platform lift is added to provide an accessible route, and the platform lift serves more than two landings or does not have self-closing manual doors on opposite sides, then the platform lift would have to provide power operated doors to the extent the costs of providing an accessible “path of travel” does not exceed 20 percent of the costs of the alterations to the primary function area.  The cost for providing the platform lift would be incurred under the current guidelines.  Only the cost for providing power operated doors on the platform lift would be attributable to the final revised guidelines.

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility?
    Providing power operated doors for a platform lift in an existing facility will not usually involve technical infeasibility. 
      

 

7.10     Water Closet Clearance in Toilet Rooms[174]

 

Table 7.10.1 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirement for water closet clearance in toilet rooms. 

 

Table 7.10.1 – Water Closet Clearance in Toilet Rooms (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.16.2  Clear Floor Space.  Clear floor space for water closets not in stalls shall comply with Fig. 28. . . .

 

[Note:  Figure 28 shows three configurations for the clearance around a water closet depending on the type of approach:

 

(a) Where only a forward approach to the water closet is provided, the clearance is 48 inches minimum measured perpendicular from the side wall and 66 inches minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall.  A lavatory with knee and toe clearance and 18 inches minimum from the water closet centerline is permitted on the wall behind the water closet.

 

(b)  Where only a parallel approach to the water closet is provided, the clearance is 48 inches minimum measured perpendicular from the side wall and 56 inches minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall.  A lavatory with knee and toe clearance and 18 inches minimum from the water closet centerline is permitted on the wall behind the water closet.

 

(c)  Where both a forward approach and a parallel approach to the water closet are provided, the clearance is 60 inches minimum measured perpendicular from the side wall and 56 inches minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall.  No other fixture is permitted to overlap the water closet clearance.]

604.3  Clearance.  Clearances around water closets and in toilet compartments shall comply with 604.3.

 

604.3.1  Size.  Clearance around a water closet shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the side wall and 56 inches (1420 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall.

 

604.3.2  Overlap.  The required clearance around the water closet shall be permitted to overlap the water closet, associated grab bars, dispensers, sanitary napkin disposal units, coat hooks, shelves, accessible routes, clear floor space and clearances required at other fixtures, and the turning space.  No other fixtures or obstructions shall be located within the required water closet clearance.

Exception:  In residential dwelling units, a lavatory complying with 606 shall be permitted on the rear wall 18 inches (455 mm) minimum from the water closet centerline where the clearance at the water closet is 66 inches (1675 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall.

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Section 604.3 has an equivalent requirement for water closet clearance in toilet rooms.  Section 1002.5.2 specifies three configurations for the clearance around a water closet in toilet rooms in Type A dwelling units depending on the type of approach.

 

The current guidelines specify three configurations for clearance around water closets in toilet rooms depending on the type of approach provided as shown in Table 7.10.2. 

 

Table 7.10.2 – Current Guidelines: Water Closet Clearance (text version)

Approach Provided to

Water Closet

Minimum Clearance in Inches Measured Perpendicular from

Side Wall

Rear Wall

Forward only

48

66

Parallel only

48

56

Both Forward & Parallel

60

56

 

Two of the configurations (forward approach only and parallel approach only) allow a lavatory located on the wall behind the water closet to overlap the water closet clearance, where the edge of the lavatory closest to the water closet is 18 inches minimum from the water closet centerline and there is knee and toe clearance under the lavatory.  

 

The final revised guidelines specify only one configuration for clearance around a water closet in toilet rooms, which is the same as the configuration for both a forward and parallel approach under the current guidelines (i.e., 60 inches by 56 inches minimum).  The final revised guidelines do not permit the lavatory to overlap the water closet clearance, but contain an exception for dwelling units that permits a lavatory to be located on the wall behind the water closet, where the edge of the lavatory closest to the water closet is 18 inches minimum from the water closet centerline, there is knee and toe clearance under the lavatory, and the minimum size of the water closet clearance is increased by 10 inches (from 56 to 66 inches) measured perpendicular to the rear wall. 

 

The revised technical requirement for water closet clearance adds approximately 9 square feet to the size of the toilet room.[175]  Toilet rooms in dwelling units that use the exception permitting the lavatory to overlap the water closet clearance add approximately 4 square feet to the size of the toilet room.  A new exception that has been added to the final revised guidelines permitting the toilet room door to swing into the clearance required around any fixture, where a clear floor space is provided within the toilet room beyond the arc of the door, results in at least a 7 square feet reduction in the required room size.[176]  This new exception eliminates the impacts that result from the change in the technical requirement for water closet clearance, where the toilet door swings into the toilet room.

 

The revision will impact toilet rooms with out-swinging doors.  Toilet rooms are generally not designed with out-swinging doors because they obstruct circulation paths, are a potential hazard to passersby, and interfere with other adjacent doors.  The notable exception is toilet rooms in patient sleeping rooms.[177]  In newly constructed dwelling units that have a toilet room with an out-swinging door, the estimated average cost for finishing an additional 4 square feet of space for the required water closet clearance is $286.  In other newly constructed facilities that have a toilet room with an out-swinging door, the estimated average cost for finishing an additional 9 square feet of space for the required water closet clearance is $667.

 

The 2000 and 2003 editions of the International Building Code reference the ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998 standard which has an equivalent requirement for water closet clearance in toilet rooms, except for Type A dwelling units.  For Type A dwelling units, the ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998 standard specifies three configurations for clearance around water closets in toilet rooms depending on the type of approach similar to the current guidelines.  Except for Type A dwelling units, facilities that are required to comply with the 2000 or 2003 editions of the International Building Code will not incur any additional costs to comply with the revised technical requirement for water closet clearance in toilet rooms.

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered?
    If a toilet room in an existing facility is altered, then the required 60 inches by 56 inches minimum clearance would have to be provided at the water closet.

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area?
    Toilet rooms are part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area
    [178]  If a primary function area in an existing facility is altered and the toilet rooms serving the primary function area are not accessible, then accessible toilet rooms would have to be provided to the extent the costs of providing an accessible “path of travel” does not exceed 20 percent of the costs of the alterations to the primary function area.  Most of the costs for providing the accessible toilet rooms will be incurred under the current guidelines.  Only the costs of providing the additional clearance in toilet rooms with out-swinging doors would be attributable to the final revised guidelines.

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility?
    It may not be feasible to rearrange fixtures or walls in existing toilet rooms due to existing physical or site constraints.  Where such conditions exist, compliance is required to the maximum extent feasible.

7.11     Shower Spray Controls

 

Table 7.11 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirement for shower spray controls. 

 

Table 7.11 – Shower Spray Controls (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.21.6  Shower Unit.  A shower spray unit with a hose at least 60 in (1525 mm) long that can be used both as a fixed shower head and as a hand-held shower shall be provided.

607.1  General.  Bathtubs shall comply with 607.

 

607.6  Shower Spray Unit and Water.  A shower spray unit with a hose 59 inches (1500 mm) long minimum that can be used both as a fixed-position shower head and as a hand-held shower shall be provided.  The shower spray unit shall have an on/off control with a non-positive shut-off.  If an adjustable-height shower head on a vertical bar is used, the bar shall be installed so as not to obstruct the use of grab bars.  Bathtub shower spray units shall deliver water that is 120°F (49°C) maximum.

 

608.1  General.   Shower compartments shall comply with 608.

 

608.6  Shower Spray Unit and Water.  A shower spray unit with a hose 59 inches (1500 mm) long minimum that can be used both as a fixed-position shower head and as a hand-held shower shall be provided.  The shower spray unit shall have an on/off control with a non-positive shut-off.  If an adjustable-height shower head on a vertical bar is used, the bar shall be installed so as not to obstruct the use of grab bars.  Shower spray units shall deliver water that is 120°F (49°C) maximum.

Exception:  A fixed shower head located at 48 inches (1220 mm) above the shower finish floor shall be permitted instead of a hand-held spray unit in facilities that are not medical care facilities, long term care facilities, transient lodging, or residential dwelling units.

Model Codes & Standards

No requirement for an on/off control on shower spray units.

 

The current guidelines require a shower spray unit to be provided in accessible bathtubs and shower compartments.  The final revised guidelines require the shower spray unit to have an on/off control.  The difference between the estimated average cost for a fixed flow shower spray unit and a variable flow shower spray unit with an on/off control is $161.

 

The revision will primarily affect bathtubs and shower compartments in newly constructed hotel guest rooms, patient sleeping rooms, and dwelling units with mobility features.

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered?
    If a shower spray unit is replaced in an existing facility, then the shower spay unit would have to provide an on/off control.

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area?
    The final revised guidelines exempt dwelling units from the scoping requirement for alterations to primary function areas.
    [179]  Toilet rooms in other facilities are part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area.[180]  If a primary function area in an existing facility is altered and the toilet rooms serving the primary function area are not accessible, then accessible toilet rooms would have to be provided to the extent the costs of providing an accessible “path of travel” does not exceed 20 percent of the costs of the alterations to the primary function area.  Most of the costs for providing the accessible toilet rooms will be incurred under the current guidelines.  If the toilet room has a bathtub or shower compartment, the additional cost for providing a shower spray unit with an on/off control would be attributable to the final guidelines.

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility?
    Providing a shower spray unit with an on/off control will not usually involve technical infeasibility.

7.12     Galley Kitchen Clearances

 

Table 7.12 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirements for galley kitchen clearances.  The current guidelines refer to UFAS.

 

Table 7.12 – Galley Kitchen Clearances (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

4.34.6  Kitchens.  Accessible or adaptable kitchens and their components shall be on an accessible route and shall comply with the requirements of 4.34.6.

 

4.34.6.1  Clearance.  Clearances between all opposing base cabinets, counter tops, appliances, or walls shall be 40 in (1015 mm) minimum, except in U-shaped kitchens, where such clearance shall be 60 in (1525 mm) minimum.

 

 

804.2  Clearance.  Where a pass through kitchen is provided, clearances shall comply with 804.2.1.  Where a U-shaped kitchen is provided, clearances shall comply with 804.2.2.

Exception:  Spaces that do not provide a cooktop or conventional range shall not be required to comply with 804.2.

 

804.2.1  Pass Through Kitchen.  In pass through kitchens where counters, appliances or cabinets are on two opposing sides, or where counters, appliances or cabinets are opposite a parallel wall, clearance between all opposing base cabinets, counter tops, appliances, or walls within kitchen work areas shall be 40 inches (1015 mm) minimum.  Pass through kitchens shall have two entries.

 

804.2.2  U-Shaped.  In U-shaped kitchens enclosed on three contiguous sides, clearance between all opposing base cabinets, counter tops, appliances, or walls within kitchen work areas shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.

Model Codes & Standards

ICC/ANSI A 117.1-1998:  Sections 804.2.1, 1002.12.1.,1 and 1002.12.1.2  have similar requirements for kitchen clearances.

 

The current guidelines specify clearances between opposing base cabinets, counters, appliances, or walls based on the layout of the kitchen:

 

  • “U-shaped” kitchens are required to have 60 inches minimum clearance between opposing base cabinets, counters, appliances, or walls.  The current guidelines do not further describe what constitutes a “U-shaped” kitchen.

 

  • All other kitchens are required to have 40 inches minimum clearance between opposing base cabinets, counters, appliances, or walls. 

 

The final revised guidelines also specify clearances between opposing base cabinets, counters, appliances, or walls based on the layout of the kitchen:

 

  • “U-shaped” kitchens, which are enclosed on three contiguous sides, are required to have 60 inches minimum clearance between opposing base cabinets, counters, appliances, or walls.

 

  • “Pass through” kitchens, which have two entries, are required to have 40 inches minimum clearance between opposing base cabinets, counters, appliances, or walls.

 

  • An exception exempts kitchens that do not have a cooktop or conventional range from the clearance requirements. 

 

The revision will impact small “galley” kitchens with base cabinets, counters, and appliances on two opposing walls.  The current guidelines require this “galley” kitchen to have 40 inches minimum clearance between the opposing base cabinets, counters, appliances, or walls.  In multi-family residential facilities, kitchens, bathrooms, and closets are located along interior walls, and space constraints may limit adding a second entry to the kitchen.  If a “galley” kitchen does not have two entries, the final revised guidelines require the kitchen to have 60 inches minimum clearance between the opposing base cabinets, counters, appliances, or walls.  For a typical small “galley” kitchen that is 8 feet long, increasing the width of the kitchen to provide 60 inches clearance would add approximately 13 square feet to the kitchen.[181]  In a newly constructed residential facility, the estimated average cost for finishing an additional 13 square feet of kitchen space to provide the required clearance is $993.

 

The revision will primarily affect “galley” kitchens in newly constructed dwelling units with mobility features, and office buildings and hotel guest suites that have kitchens with a cooktop or conventional range.

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:  

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered? 
    If the base cabinets, counters, or walls in an existing “galley” kitchen are altered and the kitchen does not have two entries, then the required 60 inches minimum clearance would have to be provided between the opposing base cabinets, countertops, and appliances,

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area?  
    The final revised guidelines exempt dwelling units from the scoping requirement for alterations to primary function areas.
    [182]  Kitchens in other facilities are not part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area. 

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility?  
    It may not be feasible to rearrange base counters, countertops, and walls in existing kitchens due to existing physical or site constraints.  Where such conditions exist, compliance is required to the maximum extent feasible.

7.13     Hotel Guest Room Vanities

 

Table 7.13 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirement for vanities in hotel guest rooms with mobility features. 

 

Table 7.13 – Hotel Guest Room Vanities (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

No requirement.

806.2.4.1  Vanity Counter Top Space.  If vanity counter top space is provided in non-accessible guest toilet or bathing rooms, comparable vanity counter top space, in terms of size and proximity to the lavatory, shall also be provided in accessible guest toilet or bathing rooms. 

Model Codes & Standards

No requirement for hotel guest room vanities.

 

The current guidelines do not contain any technical requirement for vanities in hotel guest rooms with mobility features.  One design approach for providing clearances around plumbing fixtures in hotel guest rooms with mobility features is to eliminate the vanity and to provide a wall-hung lavatory with knee and toe clearance.  The final revised guidelines require that, where vanities are provided in other hotel guest rooms, comparable vanity counter top space be provided in hotel guest rooms with mobility features.  For purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that the vanity provided in other hotel guest rooms is 6 feet long and 2 feet deep, and that the lavatory provided in hotel guest rooms with mobility features is 2 feet long and 2 feet deep.  A vanity counter top space that is 4 feet long and 2 feet deep will have to be provided in hotel guest rooms with mobility features.  The estimated average cost for 8 square feet of vanity counter top space is $144.  Shelving may also be used to provide the comparable counter top space.  Depending on the layout of the toilet room, up to 8 square feet would have to be added to the toilet room.  In a newly constructed hotel, the estimated average cost for finishing an additional 8 square feet of toilet room is $608.

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered? 
    If a toilet room in an existing hotel guest room with mobility features is altered, and the toilet room does not have a vanity, and the toilet rooms in other hotel guest rooms have vanities, then equivalent vanity counter top space would have to be provided in the altered toilet room.

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area? 
    If an existing hotel guest room is altered to provide mobility features, the toilet room serving the guest room will also typically be altered.

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility?  
    It may not be feasible to rearrange fixtures and walls in existing toilet rooms in hotel guestrooms to provide equivalent vanity counter top space due to existing physical or site constraints.  Where such conditions exist, compliance is required to the maximum extent feasible.

 

7.14     Dwelling Units with Communication Features

 

Table 7.14 shows the relevant text of the current guidelines and the final revised guidelines with respect to the technical requirements for dwelling units with communication features.[183] 

 

Table 7.14 – Communication Features for Residential Dwelling Units (text version)

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines

No requirement.

809.5  Residential Dwelling Units with Communication Features.  Residential dwelling units required to have communication features shall comply with 809.5.

 

809.5.1  Building Fire Alarm System.  Where a building fire alarm system is provided, the system wiring shall be extended to a point within the residential dwelling unit in the vicinity of the residential dwelling unit smoke detection system.

 

809.5.1.1  Alarm Appliances.  Where visual alarm appliances are provided within a residential dwelling unit as part of the building fire alarm system, they shall comply with 702. 

 

[Note: Section 702 references the NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code (1999 or 2002 edition).]

 

809.5.1.2  Activation.  All visual alarm appliances provided within the residential dwelling unit for building fire alarm notification shall be activated upon activation of the building fire alarm system in the portion of the building containing the residential dwelling unit.

 

809.5.2  Residential Dwelling Unit Smoke Detection System.  Residential dwelling unit smoke detection systems shall comply with NFPA 72 (1999 or 2002 edition) (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1).

 

809.5.2.2  Activation.  All visible alarm appliances provided within the residential dwelling unit for smoke detection notification shall be activated upon smoke detection.

 

809.5.3  Interconnection.  The same visible alarm appliances shall be permitted to provide notification of residential dwelling unit smoke detection and building fire alarm activation.

 

809.5.4  Prohibited Use.  Visible alarm appliances used to indicate residential dwelling unit smoke detection or building fire alarm activation shall not be used for any other purpose within the residential dwelling unit.

 

809.5.5  Residential Dwelling Unit Primary Entrance.  Communication features shall be provided at the residential dwelling unit primary entrance complying with 809.5.5.

 

809.5.5.1  Notification.  A hard-wired electric doorbell shall be provided.  A button or switch shall be provided outside the residential dwelling unit primary entrance.  Activation of the button or switch shall initiate an audible tone and visible signal within the residential dwelling unit.  Where visible doorbell signals are located in sleeping areas, they shall have controls to deactivate the signal.

 

809.5.5.2  Identification.  A means for visually identifying a visitor without opening the residential dwelling unit entry door shall be provided and shall allow for a minimum 180 degree range of view.

 

809.5.6  Site, Building, or Floor Entrance.  Where a system, including a closed-circuit system, permitting voice communication between a visitor and the occupant of the residential dwelling unit is provided, the system shall comply with 708.4.

 

708.4  Residential Dwelling Unit Communication Systems.  Communications systems between a residential dwelling unit and a site, building, or floor entrance shall comply with 708.4.

 

708.4.1  Common Use or Public Use System Interface.  The common use or public use system interface shall include the capability of supporting voice and TTY communication with the residential dwelling unit interface.

 

708.4.2  Residential Dwelling Unit Interface.  The residential dwelling unit system interface shall include a telephone jack capable of supporting voice and TTY communication with the common use or public use system interface.

Model Codes & Standards

IBC 2000:  No scoping requirement for dwelling units with communication features.

 

IBC 2003:  No scoping requirement for dwelling units with communication features.

 

ICC/ANSI A117.1-1998:  Sections 1004.1 through 1004.7 have similar technical requirements for dwelling units with communication features.

 

The current guidelines do not have any technical requirements for dwelling units with communication features.  The final revised guidelines require newly constructed residential facilities to provide the following in dwelling units with communication features:

 

  • Where a building fire alarm system is provided, the system wiring is required to extend to the dwelling unit smoke detection system.  The building fire alarm system and the dwelling unit smoke detection system are permitted to be interconnected.  Visible alarm appliances are not required, but where they are provided, they are to be activated upon activation of the building fire alarm system in the portion of the building containing the dwelling unit and upon detection of smoke within the dwelling unit.  There is no cost for connecting the building alarm system and the dwelling unit smoke detection system since this is a common practice permitted by the NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code. 

 

  • A hard-wired electric doorbell is required at the primary entrance to the dwelling unit that initiates an audible tone and visible signal within the dwelling unit when activated.  Visible signals are not required in the sleeping area, but where provided there, a switch is required to turn off the signals.  A door peephole is also required for identifying visitors.  The estimated average cost for an electric doorbell with an audible tone and visible signal, and a door peephole is $322.  If electric doorbells and door peepholes are provided for all the dwelling units in the facility, the estimated average cost for adding a visible signal to the doorbells in the dwelling units with communication features is $96.

 

  • Where a voice communication system is provided at the entrance to the residential facility that permits communication between a visitor and the occupant of the dwelling unit, the system is required to have the capability of supporting voice and TTY communication at the public or common use side of the system, and a telephone jack capable of supporting voice and TTY communication at the dwelling unit side of the system.  The costs will depend on the type of voice communication system used.  Systems that are integrated with the telecommunications devices in the dwelling units and have built-in jacks to support TTY communication will not add any costs, other than the cost of the system.  If TTY connections are added to the system, the estimated average cost is $353.  Locating an electrical outlet near the system to supply power for a TTY adds no cost to new construction.

 

The revision will primarily affect Federal, State, and local government housing, which are required to provide communications features in 2 percent of newly constructed dwelling units.[184]

 

The impacts of the revision on alterations to existing facilities are examined below:

 

  • Is the element or space typically altered? 
    The final revised guidelines have specific scoping requirements for alterations to Federal, State, and local government housing which are discussed in Chapter 6.17.

 

  • Is the element or space part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area? 
    The final revised guidelines exempt dwelling units from the scoping requirement for alterations to primary function areas.
    [185] 

 

  • Does alteration of the element or space involve technical infeasibility? 
    Providing communication features in a dwelling unit will not usually involve technical infeasibility.

 

7.15     Summary

 

The impacts of the revisions discussed in this chapter on newly constructed facilities are summarized in Table 7.15.1.

 

Table 7.15.1 – Impacts on Newly Constructed Facilities (text version)

Revision & Facilities Primarily Affected

Current Guidelines

Final Revised Guidelines &

International Building Code

Unit Cost

Accessible Routes to Stages

 

Performing arts centers and auditoriums with permanent stairs directly connecting seating area and stage.

Accessible route required to connect seating area and stage.

Where circulation path directly connects seating area and stage, accessible route required to directly connect seating area and stage.

 

IBC 2000 & 2003: Equivalent requirement.

Will vary from $0 to $15,674

depending on specific design of facility.

Standby Power for Platform Lifts

 

Performing arts centers and auditoriums with platform lifts.

No requirement.

Where platform lift serves as part of accessible means of egress, standby power required.

 

IBC 2003: Equivalent requirement.

Will vary from $0 to $2,353

depending on specific design of facility.

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

 

Facilities with more than 600 parking spaces.

One in every 8 accessible parking spaces required to be van accessible.

One in every 6 accessible parking spaces required to be van accessible.

 

IBC 2003: Equivalent requirement.   

$73 to $344

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

 

Facilities with men’s toilet rooms that have 6 or more water closets and urinals, but fewer than 6 toilet compartments.

Toilet rooms with 6 or more toilet compartments required to provide ambulatory accessible toilet compartment with grab bars.

Toilet rooms with 6 or more toilet compartments, or combination of 6 or more water closets and urinals, required to provide ambulatory accessible toilet compartment with grab bars.

 

IBC 2000 & 2003: Equivalent requirement.

$145

Public TTYs

 

Private facilities with 4 or more public telephones on more than one floor.

 

Government facilities with public telephone on more than one floor.

 

Private facilities and government facilities with 4 or more public telephones in a bank.

 

Private facilities and government facilities with 4 or more public telephones on an exterior site.

 

Bus and rail stations with fewer than 4 public telephones at entrance.

 

Public rest stops with public telephones.

Private facilities with 4 or more public telephones required to provide public TTY.

 

Government facilities with public telephone in public use area of building, required to provide public TTY.

 

Rail stations with 4 or more public telephones at entrance required to provide public TTY at entrance.

Private facilities required to provide public TTY in building with 4 or more public telephones, and on floor with 4 or more public telephones. 

 

Government facilities required to provide public TTY in building with public telephone and on floor with public telephone.

 

Private and government facilities required to provide public TTY in bank of 4 or more public telephones.  Banks of public telephones located within 200 feet of, and on the same floor as, another bank of telephones with public TTY exempt.

 

Private and government facilities required to provide public TTY on exterior site with 4 or more public telephones.

 

Bus or rail stations with public telephone at entrance required to provide public TTY at entrance.

 

Public rest stops with public telephone required to provide public TTY.

 

IBC 2000 (Appendix E): Equivalent requirements for private facilities.

 

IBC 2003 (Appendix E): Equivalent requirements for private facilities and government facilities.

$2,320

Operable Windows

 

Hotels, and hospitals and nursing homes.

 

 

No requirement.

At least one operable window in accessible rooms required to comply with technical requirements for operable parts: 48 inches maximum reach range; operable with one hand; no tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of wrist; 5 pounds maximum force to activate.  Employee work areas and dwelling units exempt.

 

IBC 2000 & 2003:  Equivalent requirement for hotel guest rooms and patient sleeping rooms with mobility features.

$505

Two-Way Communication Systems at Entrances

 

Office buildings with two-way communication systems at entrances.

No requirement.

Two-way communication systems at entrances required to provide audible and visual signals.

$1,392

Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors

 

Facilities with in-swinging automatic doors serving spaces with occupant load of fewer than 50 persons.

No requirement.

Automatic doors serving accessible means of egress required to provide maneuvering clearance or to have standby power.

Will vary

depending on specific design of facility.

 

 $2,353 if back-up battery used.

Power-Operated Doors for Platform Lifts

 

Facilities with platform lifts serving more than 2 landings, or without self-closing doors on opposite sides.

Doors required to provide maneuvering clearance or to be power-operated.

Doors on platform lifts required to be power-operated.  Platform lifts serving only 2 landings and with self-closing doors on opposite sides exempt.

 

IBC 2000 & 2003:  Similarrequirement.

Will vary

depending on specific design of facility.

 

$569 if power-operated door provided.

Water Closet Clearance in Single User Toilet Rooms

 

Federal, State, and local government housing; hotels; hospitals and nursing homes; and office buildings.

Minimum clearance in accessible toilet rooms based on approach:

Forward: 48 x 66 inches

Parallel: 48 x 56 inches

Both forward and parallel:

60 x 56 inches.

Minimum clearance in accessible toilet rooms: 60 x 56 inches.

 

IBC 2000 & 2003:  Equivalent requirement except for dwelling units.

$286 for dwelling units.

 

$667 for other facilities.

 

Shower Spray Controls

 

Federal, State, and local government housing; hotels; and hospitals and nursing homes.

Shower spray unit required in bathtubs and shower compartments in accessible toilet rooms and bathing rooms.

On/off control required on shower spray unit.

$161

Galley Kitchen Clearance

 

Federal, State, and local government housing; hotels with suites that have kitchens with cooktops or conventional ranges; office buildings that have kitchens with cooktops or conventional ranges.

Minimum clearance between opposing base cabinets, counter tops, appliances, or walls in accessible galley kitchens: 40 inches.

Minimum clearance between opposing base cabinets, counter tops, appliances, or walls in accessible galley kitchens where two entries not provided: 60 inches.  Kitchens without cooktop or conventional range exempt.

$993

Hotel Vanity Counter

Top Space

 

Hotels.

No requirement.

Comparable vanity counter top space required in hotel guest rooms with mobility features.

$752

Dwelling Units with

Communication Features

 

Federal, State, and local government housing.

No requirement.

Two percent of dwelling units required to provide communication features: building fire alarm system wiring extend to dwelling unit smoke detection system; door bell with audible and visible signals; door peep-hole.  Where voice communication system provided at entry to facility, system required to have capacity to support TTY communication.

$96 for visual signal if doorbell & peep-hole provided.

 

$322 for

doorbell with visual signal & peephole.

 

$353 for TTY connection

 if voice communication system at entry.

 

The impacts of the revisions on alterations to existing facilities will vary depending on whether the element or space is typically altered; whether the element or space is part of the “path of travel” serving a primary function area and whether the primary function area is altered; and whether alteration of the element or space involves technical infeasibility (i.e., altering a load-bearing structural member which is an essential part of the structural frame, or existing physical or site constraints).  In addition, some of the revisions do not apply to existing facilities.  The revisions that will have no or limited impacts on alterations to existing facilities are summarized in Table 7.15.2.

 

Table 7.15.2 – Revisions That Have No or Limited (text version)

Impacts on Alterations to Existing Facilities

 

Revisions Do Not Apply to Existing Facilities

Elements and Spaces Not Typically Altered

Elements and Spaces Not Part of “Path of Travel”

Alteration of Elements or Spaces May Involve Technical Infeasibility

Standby power for platform lifts serving as part of accessible means of egress

 

Automatic doors serving accessible means of egress

Circulation paths to stages

 

Toilet compartments

 

Windows

 

Windows

 

Two-way communication systems

 

Toilet rooms in dwelling units

 

Kitchens in dwelling units

 

Communication features in dwelling units

Multi-level parking garages with low ceilings and sloped floors

 

Toilet rooms

 

Kitchens

 

Office buildings, hotels, hospitals and nursing homes, and Federal, State, and local government housing will be affected by many of the revisions and are likely to experience relatively higher costs than other types of facilities.  The national costs of the revisions for the construction of these facilities are estimated in Chapter 8. 

 

The impacts of some of the revisions will vary depending on the specific design of the facility.  Most performing arts centers and auditoriums that have fixed or built-in stairs directly connecting the seating area and the stage would comply with the accessible route requirements in the current guidelines by providing a platform lift or ramp, and will have to locate the platform lift or design the ramp so that it directly connects the seating area and the stage.  Performing arts centers and auditoriums that have fixed or built-in stairs directly connecting the seating area and the stage and would comply with the accessible route requirements in the current guidelines without providing a platform lift or ramp, will incur additional costs for a platform lift or ramp to directly connect the seating area and the stage.  Performing arts centers, auditoriums, and other facilities with platform lifts that serve as part of an accessible means of egress, will have to connect the platform lift to the building standby power source, which many buildings are required to provide by the building codes or fire and life safety codes; or will have to provide a back-up battery for the platform lift if it does not use a direct current (DC) power source.  Facilities with platform lifts that serve more than two landings, or that do not have self-closing doors on opposite sides, will have to provide power-operated doors.  Most platform lifts serve only two landings, and have self closing doors on opposite sides.  Facilities that have an in-swinging automatic door which serves a space with an occupant load of fewer than 50 persons and also serves as an accessible means of egress from the space, will have to provide maneuvering clearance at the door; or will have to connect the door to the building standby power source, which as noted above many buildings are required to provide; or will have to provide a back-up battery for the door.  The International Building Code has equivalent requirements for these elements, except for automatic doors.