101 Purpose

This part provides scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, buildings, and elements by individuals with disabilities. These requirements are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of sites, facilities, buildings, and elements to the extent required by regulations issued by Federal agencies under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

102 Provisions for Adults and Children

The technical requirements in this part are based on adult dimensions and anthropometrics. This part also contains technical requirements based on children's dimensions and anthropometrics for drinking fountains, water closets, toilet compartments, lavatories and sinks, dining surfaces, and work surfaces.

103 Equivalent Facilitation

Nothing in this part is intended to prevent the use of designs or technologies as alternatives to those prescribed in this part provided they result in substantially equivalent or greater accessibility and usability.

Advisory 103
The responsibility for demonstrating equivalent facilitation in the event of a challenge rests with the covered entity. With the exception of transit facilities which are covered by regulations issued by the Department of Transportation, there is no process for certifying that an alternative design provides equivalent facilitation.

104 Conventions

Figure 104

104.1 Dimensions. Dimensions that are not stated as "maximum" or "minimum" are absolute.

104.1.1 Construction and Manufacturing Tolerances. All dimensions are subject to conventional industry tolerances.

Advisory 104.1.1
Conventional industry tolerances recognized by this provision include those for field conditions and those that may be a necessary consequence of a particular manufacturing process. Recognized tolerances are not intended to apply to design work. It is good practice when specifying dimensions to avoid stating in the specification a tolerance (i.e., if this document requires "32 inches" avoid specifying "32 inches plus or minus X inches"). This could lead some to mistakenly assume that a tolerance allowed by this document can be applied in addition to the specified tolerance. This "double-dipping" or compounding of tolerances would not achieve the intended requirement. Where the requirement itself allows a range of dimensions, such as in section 604.4 where the height of water closets must be 17 inches minimum to 19 inches maximum measured to the top of the toilet seat, "17 inches minus X inches minimum to 19 inches plus X inches maximum" is how the provision for tolerance is intended to apply. As stated previously though, it is good practice to simply specify the dimensions as "17 inches to 19 inches". Information on specific tolerances may be available from industry or trade organizations, code groups and building officials, and published references.

104.2 Calculation of Percentages. Where the required number of accessible elements or facilities to be provided is determined by calculations of ratios or percentages and remainders or fractions result, the next greater whole number of such elements or facilities shall be provided. Where the determination of the required size or dimension of an element or facility involves ratios or percentages, rounding down for values less than one half shall be permitted.

105 Referenced Standards

105.1 General. The standards referenced in this part and listed in 105.2 shall be considered part of the requirements of this part to the prescribed extent of each such reference. References to standards within the technical and scoping requirements shall apply to the specific edition of the reference standard listed in 105.2. Where differences occur between provisions of this part and referenced standards, the provisions of this part shall apply.

Advisory 105.1
In addition to the requirements of this document, there is an obligation to meet the requirements of any referenced standards unless there is a conflict with the guidelines. It is important to use the specific edition of the referenced standards.

105.2 Referenced Standards.

105.2.1 Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Protective Signaling Systems. NFPA 72-1996.

105.2.2 Power-Operated Pedestrian Doors. ANSI/BHMA A156.10-1996.

105.2.3 Power-Assist and Low-Energy Power-Operated Doors. ANSI/BHMA A156.19-1996.

105.2.4 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. ASME/ANSI A17.1-1993, (including Addenda ASME/ANSI A17.1a-1994 and ASME/ANSI A17.1b-1995).

106 Definitions

106.1 General. Terms defined in 106.5 shall have the specified meaning for purposes of this part, unless otherwise stated.

106.2 Terms Defined in Referenced Standards. Terms not defined in this section or in regulations issued by the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation to implement the Americans with Disabilities Act but specifically defined in a referenced standard, shall have the specified meaning from the referenced standard, unless otherwise stated.

106.3 Undefined Terms. The meaning of terms not specifically defined in this part, or in regulations issued by the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation to implement the Americans with Disabilities Act or in referenced standards shall be as defined by collegiate dictionaries in the sense that the context implies.

106.4 Interchangeability. Words, terms and phrases used in the singular include the plural and those used in the plural include the singular.

106.5 Defined Terms.

Accessible. A site, building, facility, or portion thereof that complies with this part.

Accessible Means of Egress. Means of egress is a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or facility to a public way. An accessible means of egress is one that provides an accessible route to an area of refuge, a horizontal exit or a public way.

Accessible Route. A continuous, unobstructed path that complies with this part.

Addition. An expansion, extension, or increase in the gross floor area or height of a building or facility.

Administrative Authority. A governmental agency that adopts or enforces regulations and guidelines for the design, construction, or alteration of buildings and facilities.

Alteration. A change to a building or facility that affects or could affect the usability of the building or facility or part thereof. Alterations include, but are not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, resurfacing of circulation paths or vehicular ways, changes or rearrangement of the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions. Normal maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, or changes to mechanical and electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility.

Area of Refuge. An area where people may remain temporarily to await further instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.

Assembly Area. A room or space accommodating a group of individuals for recreational, educational, political, social, civic, or amusement purposes, or for the consumption of food and drink.

Automatic Door. A door operated with power-operated mechanisms and operable parts that open and close the door automatically upon receipt of a momentary actuating signal (see power-assisted door).

Building. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

Characters. Letters, numbers, punctuation marks and typographic symbols.

Children's Use. Spaces and elements specifically designed for use primarily by people 12 years old and younger.

Circulation Path. An exterior or interior way of passage from one place to another for pedestrians, including, but not limited to, walks, hallways, courtyards, stairways, and stair landings.

Closed-Circuit Telephone. A telephone with a dedicated line such as a house phone, courtesy phone or phone that must be used to gain entrance to a facility.

Common Use. Interior or exterior rooms, spaces, or elements that are made available for the use of a restricted group of people such as the occupants of a homeless shelter, the occupants of an office building, or the guests of such occupants.

Cross Slope. The slope that is perpendicular to the direction of travel (see running slope).

Curb Ramp. A short ramp cutting through a curb or built up to it.

Destination-Oriented Elevator. An elevator system that provides lobby controls to select floor stops, lobby indicators designating which elevator to use and a car indicator designating the floors at which the car will stop.

Detectable Warning. A standardized surface feature built in or applied to walking surfaces or other elements to warn visually impaired people of hazards on a circulation path.

Dwelling Unit. A single unit containing rooms and spaces for living, bathing, and sleeping, and which may provide a kitchen or food preparation area.

Element. An architectural or mechanical component of a building, facility, space, or site.

Employee Work Area. All or any portion of a space used only by employees and used only for work. Corridors, toilet rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work areas.

Entrance. Any access point to a building or portion of a building or facility used for the purpose of entering. An entrance includes the approach walk, the vertical access leading to the entrance platform, the entrance platform itself, vestibule if provided, the entry door or gate, and the hardware of the entry door or gate.

Facility. All or any portion of buildings, structures, site improvements, elements, and pedestrian or vehicular routes located on a site.

Ground Floor. Any occupiable floor not more than one story above or below grade with direct access to grade.

Mail Boxes. Receptacles for the receipt of documents, packages, or other deliverable matter. Mail boxes include, but are not limited to, post office boxes and receptacles provided by commercial mail-receiving agencies, apartment houses, and schools.

Marked Crossing. A crosswalk or other identified path intended for pedestrian use in crossing a vehicular way.

Mezzanine. That portion of a story which is an intermediate floor level placed within the story and having occupiable space above and below its floor.

Occupiable. A room or enclosed space designed for human occupancy.

Operable Part. A component of an element used to insert or withdraw objects, or to activate, deactivate, or to adjust the element.

Pictogram. A pictorial symbol which represents activities, facilities, or concepts.

Power-Assisted Door. A door used for human passage with a mechanism that helps to open the door, or relieves the opening resistance of a door, upon the activation of a switch or a continued force applied to the door itself (see automatic door).

Private Building or Facility. A place of public accommodation or a commercial building or facility subject to title III of the ADA and 28 CFR part 36 or a transportation building or facility subject to title III of the ADA and 49 CFR 37.45.

Project. The whole of one or more residential structures and appurtenant structures, equipment, roads, walks, and parking lots which are covered by a single contract for Federal assistance, or are developed as a whole for processing purposes, whether or not located on a common site.

Public Building or Facility. A building or facility or portion of a building or facility constructed by, on behalf of, or for the use of a public entity subject to title II of the ADA and 28 CFR part 35 or to title II of the ADA and 49 CFR 37.41 or 37.43.

Public Entrance. An entrance that is not a service entrance or a restricted entrance.

Public Use. Interior or exterior rooms, spaces, or elements that are made available to the public. Public use may be provided at a building or facility that is privately or publicly owned.

Public Way. Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a public street, which has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3,050 mm).

Qualified Historic Building or Facility. A building or facility that is listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places; or designated as historic under an appropriate State or local law.

Ramp. A walking surface which has a running slope steeper than 1:20.

Restricted Entrance. An entrance that is made available for common use on a controlled basis but not public use and that is not a service entrance.

Running Slope. The slope that is parallel to the direction of travel (see cross slope).

Self-Service Storage Facility. Real property designed and used for the purpose of renting or leasing individual storage spaces to customers for the purpose of storing and removing personal property on a self-service basis.

Service Entrance. An entrance intended primarily for delivery of goods or services (see entrance, public entrance, and restricted entrance).

Sign. An architectural element composed of displayed text, numbers, symbolic, tactile or pictorial information.

Site. A parcel of land bounded by a property line or a designated portion of a public right-of- way.

Space. A definable area, such as a room, toilet room, hall, assembly area, entrance, storage room, alcove, courtyard, or lobby.

Story. That portion of a building or facility included between the upper surface of a floor and upper surface of the floor or roof next above. A story containing one or more mezzanines has more than one floor level.

Structural Frame. The columns and the girders, beams, and trusses having direct connections to the columns and all other members which are essential to the stability of the building or facility as a whole.

Tactile. An object that can be perceived using the sense of touch.

Technically Infeasible. With respect to an alteration of a building or a facility, something that has little likelihood of being accomplished because existing structural conditions would require removing or altering a load-bearing member which is an essential part of the structural frame; or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces, or features which are in full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements for alterations and which are necessary to provide accessibility.

Transient Lodging. A building or facility excluding inpatient medical care facilities, long-term care facilities, or detention or correctional facilities that contains one or more guest rooms for sleeping. Guest rooms may include a kitchen or food preparation area. Transient lodging may include, but is not limited to, resorts, group homes, hotels, motels, and dormitories, homeless shelters, halfway houses and social service lodging.

TTY. Machinery or equipment that employs interactive text based communications through the transmission of coded signals across the standard telephone network. The term TTY can include, for example, devices known as TDDs (telecommunication display devices or telecommunication devices for deaf persons) or computers with special modems. TTYs are also called text telephones.

Vehicular Way. A route intended for vehicular traffic, such as a street, driveway, or parking lot.

Walk. An exterior pathway with a prepared surface intended for pedestrian use, including general pedestrian areas such as plazas and courts.

Wheelchair. A mobility aid belonging to any class of three- or four-wheeled devices, usable indoors, designed for and used by individuals with mobility impairments, whether operated manually or powered.

Wheelchair Space. Space for a single wheelchair and its occupant.