Notes

  1. To locate an orientation and mobility specialist, see http://aerbvi.org/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=4 for a list of chapters of the Association for the Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually-Impaired (AER).
  2. Scott, A.C., Myers, L., Barlow, J.M., and Bentzen, B.L. Accessible pedestrian signals: The effect of pushbutton location and audible WALK indications on pedestrian behavior. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2005. Number 1939, pp 69-76.
  3. Ashmead, D.H., Wall, R.S., Bentzen, B.L. and Barlow, J.M. Which Crosswalk? Effects of accessible pedestrian signal characteristics. ITE Journal. 2004. 74-9, pps 26-31.
  4. Bentzen, B.L., Barlow, J.M., and Franck, L. Addressing barriers to blind pedestrians at signalized intersections. ITE Journal. 2000. 70-9, pps. 32-35. 
  5. Carroll, J. and Bentzen, B.L. American Council of the Blind survey of intersection accessibility. The Braille Forum, 1999. 38(7), pps. 11-15.
  6. Uslan, M.M., Peck, A.F., and Waddell, W. Audible traffic signals: how useful are they? ITE Journal, 1988. 58, pps. 37-43.
  7. Bentzen, B.L., Barlow, J.M., Franck, L. Speech messages for accessible pedestrian signals. ITE Journal. 2004. 74-9, pps 20-24.
  8. MUTCD NPA contains specifications of features required with speech messages in 4E.09.  Federal Register Volume 73, Number 1, pages 312-313, January 2, 2008.
  9. Wall, R.S., D.H. Ashmead, B.L. Bentzen, & J. Barlow. Directional guidance from audible pedestrian signals for street crossing. Ergonomics. 2004. Vol. 47, (12), 1318 – 1338.
  10. Carroll & Bentzen. p. 14.
  11. Bentzen, Barlow & Franck, 2000, p 34.
  12. MUTCD NPA contains specifications of features required with speech messages in 4E.09.  Federal Register Volume 73, Number 1, pages 312-313, January 2, 2008.
  13. There are two major consumer groups of individuals who are blind, the American Council of the Blind, www.acb.org, and the National Federation of the Blind, www.nfb.org, with chapters in many US cities.
  14. Wall, et al., 2004.
  15. Scott, A.C., Barlow, J. M., Bentzen, B.L., Bond, T. and Gubbe, D. (in press) Accessible Pedestrian Signals at complex intersections: Effects on blind pedestrians. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2008.
  16. US DOJ ADA title II implementing regulation at 35.130(b)(7)