X02.3.1.1 General. Where provided for pedestrian use or operation, street furniture installed on or adjacent to a public sidewalk and accessed from the public right-of-way shall be provided in accordance with Section X02. This section excludes fixtures in the public right-of-way that are not intended for use by the public , such as traffic control cabinets, and items that can be accessed only from private property, such as fenced-off sidewalk cafe tables.
Advisory: When replacement of an existing item of street furniture with a new, fully accessible item of street furniture is beyond the practicable scope of the public sidewalk alteration, it is recommended that a sign indicating the location of the nearest fully accessible item of furniture should be affixed to the existing (unmodified) facility. Such a sign would comply with Section X02.3.8. This recommendation is similar to requirements for on-site furnishings in ADAAG.
Discussion: Street furniture tends to be scattered unevenly throughout the public right-of-way, and may be widely spaced and unpredictably located. It is more difficult, especially in inclement weather, on poorly maintained sidewalks, or in crowded conditions, to seek out furniture that is accessible. Each cluster of street furniture, therefore, must contain accessible units. The scoping level for the public right-of-way is thus higher in concentration than what is required for on-site facilities.
X02.3.1.2 Connection to the pedestrian access route. Street furniture required by X02.3 to be accessible, shall be accessible from the pedestrian access route.
Discussion: This section is analogous to proposed ADAAG Section 206.2.2, which requires that at least one accessible route shall connect with all accessible spaces and elements that are on the same site or building. The intention is the same, that any elements provided for use by the public in the public right-of-way shall be accessible to persons with disabilities. While the entire public sidewalk and all of its street furniture may not be accessible (e.g., due to excessive cross slopes, changes in level, or obstructions), each fixed item of street furniture required to be accessible must tie into the pedestrian access route.
X02.3.1.3 Clear floor or ground space and related provisions. Street furniture intended for public use by pedestrians, and required by Section X02 to be accessible, shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 305 (Clear Floor and Ground Space), Section 306 (Knee and Toe Clearance), Section 308 (Reach Ranges), Section 309 (Operable Parts) and other sections as applicable. For all street furniture, the clear floor or ground space shall not encroach into the 60-inch (1525mm) wide pedestrian access route by more than 24 inches (610mm).
EXCEPTION: Clear floor and ground space for push buttons may encroach entirely into the pedestrian access route.
Advisory: Wherever possible in the case of alterations, the floor or ground space should be placed entirely outside of the through pedestrian traffic circulation. If there is not enough room for a front approach clear floor or ground space separate from the through pedestrian traffic, consider providing a side approach clear floor or ground space.
Discussion: The clear floor and ground space encroachment is a compromise that allows wheel chair users to use fixed street furnishings undisturbed while still allowing passage by other pedestrians. When a stationary wheel chair encroaches 24 inches into the 60 inch wide pedestrian access route, there still remains 36 inches (915mm) of clearance.
Frontier issue: The committee discussed the fact that larger wheelchairs and electric scooters are used more frequently in the outdoor environment and that the clear ground space of 32 inches by 48 inches provided in proposed ADAAG Section 305 is a leftover standard developed for returning veterans during a certain era that may not accommodate these larger mobility aids. Members felt it is not an appropriate standard for the ADA, which embraces the rights of the entire disability population. In some sections of this report, such as for the approach to push buttons, the committee recommended a larger clear ground space. The committee suggests future work to establish a uniform recommendation on these dimensions for outdoor environments.
X02.3.2.1 General. Where drinking fountains and water coolers are provided, they shall be provided in accordance with Section X02.
X02.3.2.2 Multiple installations. A minimum of two drinking fountains or water coolers is required in any one location. Fifty percent of all drinking fountains and water coolers in a cluster shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 602.1 through Section 602.6. The remainder of the drinking fountains and water coolers in the cluster shall comply with Section 602.7.
EXCEPTION: Single installations of "hi-lo" type drinking fountains or water fountains complying with proposed ADAAG Section 602 shall be considered as meeting the requirements of minimum number of fixtures.
Plan, side and front elevation views of an accessible hi-lo drinking fountain. Fountains are mounted on a short wall that turns a 90 degree corner at the end by the high fixture, forming a cane detectable barricade adjacent to the fixture group. The low fountain has its bottom edge at 27" above grade and does not have a barrier wall.
EXCEPTION: Where an odd number of three or more drinking fountains or water coolers are provided, fifty percent shall be permitted to be calculated to be fifty percent plus or minus one.
Advisory: In order to avoid creating a situation where people with disabilities have to travel inordinately long distances between drinking fountains or water coolers, all drinking fountains and water coolers should be accessible to individuals who use wheelchairs, as well as to individuals who have difficulty bending or stooping. This will have the added advantage of making drinking fountains and water coolers accessible to children and people of short stature.
X02.3.3.1 General. Where public telephones are provided within the public right-of-way, they shall comply with the provisions of this section.
X02.3.3.2 Single unit. Where a single public telephone is provided, it shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 704.2, Section 704.4, and Section 704.5.
X02.3.3.3 Multiple units. Where two or more public telephones are clustered together, such as in a bank of telephones, at least one shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 704.2, Section 704.4, and Section 704.5.
X02.3.3.4 Volume Controls. All public telephones shall provide volume controls in compliance with proposed ADAAG Section 704.3.
Discussion: Volume control is especially important in the public right-of-way, where the ambient noise level tends to be much higher. The committee also discussed the need for telephones to accommodate people of different heights and the possibility that telephones could be designed with either dual or adjustable keypads or that possibly the keypad could be on the handset.
Recommended question: The committee heard comments that the function of the text telephone (TTY), when placed on the wheelchair-accessible telephone, may be problematic for two reasons. First, the installation of the lowered phone may interfere with the ability of a wheelchair user to make a forward approach to the phone with appropriate knee space; second, the use of the TTY by a standing person is ergonomically inappropriate, requiring bending or stooping while typing. Thus, the committee recommends that the Access Board ask a question whether an exception should be allowed for the TTY features to be placed on a higher phone when multiple phones are provided and that the Access Board seek input from users regarding the most usable location for the TTY features to be provided.
X02.3.4.1 General. Where permanent public toilet facilities are provided in the public right-of-way, they shall comply with Section X02.3.4.
(A) Toilet compartments. Where toilet compartments are provided, at least one shall be a wheelchair accessible compartment complying with proposed ADAAG Section 604.8.1. Where six or more toilet compartments are provided, an ambulatory accessible compartment complying with proposed ADAAG Section 604.8.2 shall be provided in addition to the compartment complying with proposed ADAAG Section 604.8.1
(B) Water closets. Water closets in a wheelchair accessible toilet compartment or an ambulatory accessible compartment required by X02.3.4.1 shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 604. Where water closets are provided, but not in toilet compartments, at least one shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 604.
EXCEPTION: Toilet facilities in the public right-of-way shall provide a minimum of 48 inches (1220mm) in front of the water closet.
Discussion: This change is to clarify the requirements for water closets in toilet compartments. Without this change, the NPRM requirement appeared to require accessible water closets in locations other than in toilet compartments due to the references.
(C) Urinals. Where urinals are provided, at least one shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 605.
(D) Lavatories. Where lavatories are provided, at least one shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 606. Where only one accessible lavatory is provided, it shall not be located in a toilet compartment.
(E) Mirrors. Where mirrors are provided, at least one shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 603.3.
(F) Operable parts and dispensers. Where operable parts, dispensers, receptacles or other equipment are provided, at least one of each type shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 309.
Frontier issue: The reach ranges specified in proposed ADAAG Section 308 (referenced by Section 309) accommodate people in wheelchairs who have the upper body abilities necessary to raise their arms over their shoulders or move their upper arms away from their body. These reach ranges do not accommodate people with limited upper body abilities. The vast majority of people can reach between 40 and 42 inches. Some committee members felt that the highest operable parts of accessible controls and dispensers should be between 40 and 42 inches above the finished floor. The committee did make such a recommendation for push buttons and parking meter controls, but did not extend to the controls for toilet facilities in the public right -of-way. The committee suggests future work to establish a uniform recommendation on reach ranges that accommodate a broader range of persons with disabilities.
X02.3.4.2 Permanent toilet facilities. Permanent public toilet facilities in the public right-of-way shall be accessible in accordance with proposed ADAAG Section 603 and shall provide a minimum of 48 inches (1220mm) clearance in front of the water closet.
Plan view of a toilet stall with 48-inch clear space shown between the center front of the toilet bowl and the wall opposite.
Discussion: The committee intends that the toilets in the public right-of-way exceed toilet size in on-site facilities to allow scooter and larger power chair users to use these toilets. People with disabilities and people who are among the aging population use electric scooters more often in the outdoor environment than they do in the indoor environment. The 48-inch clearance in front of the toilet allows for an even longer clearance when the toilet is approached diagonally. This 48-inch clearance in front of the toilet is in addition to the clear floor or ground space required in front of the door to the toilet enclosure.
X02.3.5.1 General. Fixed tables, counters and benches shall comply with Section X02.3.
(A) Tables and counters. Where fixed tables or counters are provided in a single location, at least five percent but not less than one, shall comply with Section X02.3.5.3 for clear ground space and Section X02.3.5.4 for table and counter height.
(B) Benches. Where fixed benches are provided without tables, at a single location, at least 50 percent, but no less than one, shall have a back and armrests.
X02.3.5.3 Clear floor and ground space. For benches without tables, a clear ground space complying with proposed ADAAG Section 305 shall be provided at one end of at least one bench at each location where a single fixed bench or cluster of benches are provided. The clear ground space shall be positioned to allow a wheelchair user to be seated shoulder-to-shoulder with an individual seated on the bench. A clear floor or ground space, where required at tables and counters, shall be provided for a forward approach to the table or counter, with required knee and toe clearance, in accordance with Section 306.
EXCEPTION: When tables are provided for children's use, a clear floor or ground space complying with proposed ADAAG Section 305, positioned for a forward approach, shall be provided. Knee and toe clearance complying with proposed ADAAG Section 306 shall be provided, except that knee clearance 24 inches (610mm) minimum above the floor or ground shall be permitted.
Discussion: The committee discussed the need for larger clear ground space in the public right-of-way. See discussion at Section X02.3.1.3.
X02.3.5.4 Height of tables. The tops of tables and counters required to be accessible shall be 28 inches (710 mm) minimum to 34 inches (865 mm) maximum above the floor or ground.
EXCEPTION: When accessible tables are provided for children's use, the tops of tables shall be 26 inches (660 mm) minimum to 30 inches (760 mm) maximum above the floor or ground.
Bench with adjacent clear area for wheelchair user (plan view).
Figure X02.3 D Bench with Arm/Backrests
Side view of bench with arms and back.
Discussion: The committee agreed that there can be design solutions to the competing constraints of the maximum height of a leading edge detectable by cane and the minimum clear space a wheelchair user requires for knee room, and recommends future work on this issue . See frontier issue under Section X02.2.4.
X02.3.6 Bus stop pads and shelters.
Bus stop pads and shelters shall comply with proposed ADAAG Chapter 10.
Discussion: A route to and into a shelter and the size of a bus stop pad for the deployment of onboard lifts and ramps are already covered by existing regulations of the US Department of Transportation, the title II regulations of the US Department of Justice, and proposed ADAAG Chapter 10.
X02.3.7 Depositories, vending machines, change machines and trash receptacles.
X02.3.7.1 General. Depositories, vending machines, change machines, trash receptacles and similar fixed equipment with operable parts shall comply with Section X02.3.7.
X02.3.7.2 Fixed equipment. Where provided at a single location, at least one of each type of fixed depository, vending machine, change machine, and trash receptacle provided shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 305, Section 308, and Section 309. The clear ground space shall not encroach into the 60-inch (1525mm) wide pedestrian access route by more than 24 inches (610mm).
EXCEPTION: Drive-up-only depositories shall not be required to comply with this section.
Advisory: Depositories include, but are not limited to, night receptacles in banks, post office mailboxes, video stores, and libraries.
Discussion: The committee discussed the need for larger dimensions in the public right-of-way. See discussion under Section X02.3.1.3.
X02.3.8.1 General. Street identification and other pedestrian signage shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 703, except as noted in Section X02.3.8.3, Section X02.3.8.4, and Section X02.3.8.5. Braille signs shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 703.5.
Discussion: The committee is recommending some provisions for tactile signage which are more stringent than in proposed ADAAG Section 703 because, in outdoor environments, touch is frequently less sensitive due to cold. The intent is to maximize legibility of tactile signs in adverse conditions.
(A) Street Identification. Street signs shall comply with requirements of Section X02.3.8.5. Where an Accessible Pedestrian Signal is provided, visual and tactile street identification complying with Section X02.3.8.3 and Braille complying with proposed ADAAG Section 703.5 is required above the push button.
(B) Bus route identification. Where bus route identification signs are provided in the public right-of-way on or adjacent to a public sidewalk, they shall comply with the provisions of this section for visual characters, tactile characters and Braille. Signs providing the route number and route name shall be provided. Raised print is required for route number identification only. If a variable message sign is used at a bus stop or shelter, an audible equivalent shall be provided.
Advisory: Where street identification and other pedestrian signs, including bus route identification signs, are provided in accessible format, remote audible signs may be more easily located and more usable than tactile signs. Remote infrared audible signs (RIAS) are an excellent means of making all kinds of information accessible to persons who are blind or who have print disabilities. Requirements for RIAS are provided in Section X02.3.8.8.2.
Discussion: Bus stops and shelters are covered as transportation facilities in accessibility guidelines adopted by DOT as part of the title II regulation (49CFR Parts 27, 37 and 38). Bus route identification signs must comply with specifications for visual characters. DOT's ADA regulations do not require tactile signs at bus stops and shelters. DOT's ADA regulations do require, however, that bus stop locations be audibly and visibly announced on the vehicle.
Research need: The committee believes that a system of remote audible signage utilizing emitters that can be scanned and read through personal receivers offers the greatest opportunity for making pedestrian information available to people who have vision impairments. Research in the area of accessible signage, geographic information systems, and global positioning systems is encouraged, which may result in the development of other methods of street identification and bus and bus route identification.
(C) Informational and warning signs. Informational and warning signs shall comply with requirements of Section X02.3.8.5.
Research need: While the committee believes that informational and warning signs in the public right-of-way should be provided in an accessible format, there were concerns regarding methods of making that information readily accessible to individuals who are blind or visually impaired. Signs at construction barriers were of particular concern to the committee. Research is recommended to determine whether audible and/or tactile signage is appropriate, or what other methods can be used to make informational and warning signs accessible. Research in the use of geographic information systems (GIS) should include consideration of the needs of pedestrians who are visually impaired or blind and the collection of data that could provide orientation and wayfinding information.
(A) Finish and Contrast. Eggshell finish shall be used for street identification and other pedestrian signage. A minimum 70 percent visual contrast is required.
Advisory: Research indicates that signs are more legible for persons with low vision when characters contrast with their background by at least 70 percent. In general, the greater the contrast, the greater the legibility, regardless of visual acuity. Seventy percent contrast is not an optimum; it is the minimum contrast for good legibility for readers with unimpaired vision.
(B) Character width. For pedestrian access signage, character width shall be 60 percent minimum and 100 percent maximum (3:5 minimum and 1:1 maximum) the height of the character, with the width based on the uppercase letter "O" and the height based on the uppercase letter "I." Pedestrian signage shall be based upon the intended viewing distance in accordance with proposed ADAAG Section 703.
(C) Character height. The character height measured vertically from the baseline of the character shall be 5/8 inch minimum and 2 inches maximum based on the height of the uppercase letter "I."
(D) Stroke thickness and cross section. Characters shall have a rounded or trapezoidal cross section. The stroke thickness of the uppercase letter "I" shall be 10 percent minimum and 30 percent maximum of the height of the character measured at the base of the cross section. Stroke thickness at the top of the cross section shall be 15 percent maximum of the height of the character.
(E) Sign Corners. All signs intended for touch reading shall have rounded corners.
Discussion: The above requirements are in addition to, or instead of, the requirements in proposed ADAAG Section 703. Some of the requirements are more stringent than those in proposed ADAAG Section 703. Tactile characters that are rectangular in cross section tend to be sharp and uncomfortable for touch reading. Characters that are intended for both visual and tactile reading are likely to use the widest permissible stroke width for greatest visibility, which will be less legible for touch readers than narrower stroke widths. Characters having rounded or trapezoidal cross sections are narrower at the top (tactile reading) surface than at the bottom, making them more legible to touch readers. Proposed ADAAG Section 703 permits characters that are rectangular in cross section. They are not recommended here because they are less comfortable and less legible.
A sign usable for touch reading should not have sharp corners that can injure the fingers that must find and read them. A requirement for rounded corners was also not previously addressed in ADAAG.
(A) Character width. Character width shall be 60 percent minimum and 100 percent maximum (3:5 minimum and 1:1 maximum) the height of the character, with the width based on the uppercase letter "O" and the height based on the uppercase letter "I."
(B) Character height. Character height measured vertically from the baseline of the character shall be 5/8 inch minimum and 3/4 inch maximum based on the height of the uppercase letter "I."
(C) Stroke thickness and cross section. Characters shall have a rounded or trapezoidal cross section. The stroke thickness of the uppercase letter "I" shall be 10 percent minimum and 30 percent maximum of the height of the character measured at the base of the cross section. Stroke thickness at the top of the cross section shall be 15 percent maximum of the height of the character.
(D) Sign corners. All signs intended for touch reading shall have rounded corners.
Discussion: The committee agreed with most of the requirements in proposed ADAAG Section 703.3 for tactile characters. They recommend the substitute requirements above for Section 703.3.2.3, Section 703.3.2.4, and Section 703.3.2.5, as discussed above. They added a requirement regarding rounded sign corners.
Diagrammatic section of a tactile character illustrating rounded and trapezoidal edges.
X02.3.8.5 Visual characters. Visual characters shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 703.4, except the requirement in Section X02.3.8.5 (A) shall replace the requirement in proposed ADAAG Section 703.4.1.
(A) Finish and contrast. Eggshell finish shall be used for street identification and other pedestrian signage. A minimum 70 percent visual contrast is required
(B) Character height. The height of characters used in street identification and other pedestrian signage shall be based upon the intended viewing distance in accordance with proposed ADAAG Section 703.
Advisory: This section pertains to signage that may be intended to be read from the far side of the intersection. Use of larger signs and shapes than those required in ADAAG Table 703.4.2.4 is encouraged.
Discussion: Requirements of proposed ADAAG Section 703 for visual characters, except for those for finish and contrast, were considered appropriate by the committee. Viewing distances in the public right-of-way may be further than typical indoor situations, accordingly, character height may need to be larger to result in equivalent legibility.
(A) Mounting height. Mounting height for all signs that include tactile characters shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) above the finish floor to the centerline of the sign.
Isometric view of a bus shelter indicating the location of accessible signage at the leading (front) end of the side wall at the end where the front of the bus will stop.
(A) Viewing distance. Changeable message signs presented using LED, LCD, flip-dot or other means shall be legible from the same distance as conventional print signs.
Advisory: The information in this section is provided in an effort to improve the readability of changeable or variable message signs for pedestrian users of the public right-of-way. Character height for changeable message signs should be about 35 percent greater than character height for conventional print signs in order to have equal legibility at the same distance. Characters should be uppercase, and in conventional form. Characters should not be italic, oblique, script, highly decorative, or of other unusual forms. Character width should be no less than 60 percent the height of the character. Characters having a single stroke width have been found to be more legible at 2-inch character height than characters having double stroke width. Characters having a double stroke width have been found to be more legible at 4-inch to 8-inch character height. Spacing between individual characters should be 1.5 to 2.0 times stroke width for greatest legibility.
(B) Message flow. Messages that are short enough to fit within the length of a changeable message sign should be static. Where messages are too long to fit within the length of a changeable message sign, messages shall stream with a dwell time of 2.74 seconds. Paging messages are not permitted.
Advisory: Static messages have been found to be more legible than dynamic messages to readers having visual acuities from 20/20 to 20/200. They are also greatly preferred. Dynamic messages that stream from right to left have been found to be significantly more legible than messages that page up from the bottom.
Research need: Research is needed to determine specifications for changeable message signs that will result in equivalent legibility for readers having visual acuities from 20/20 to 20/200, in outdoor situations. Technical specifications are needed for changeable message signs of different types and colors, in situations in which messages are either static or dynamic, and in situations in which either the viewer or the sign are in motion.
(A) General. Where there are audible signs, a visual equivalent shall be provided.
(6) Capture of the receiver by the stronger of two signals in the receiver field of view requires a received power ratio on the order of 20dB for negligible interference; adjacent transmitter frequency tolerance of 50 Hz to 100 Hz improves the intelligibility of interfering signals.
Advisory: Transit stations and platforms are routinely used by persons who are blind. Tactile signs do not necessarily help persons who are blind to locate station entrances and exits, fare gates, fare machines, stairs and escalators, platforms, and other amenities, because tactile signs cannot be located consistently enough for persons who are blind to find them efficiently. Remote infrared audible signs are suggested as a wayfinding system because, like vision, they enable users to scan the environment (using a personal receiver) and "read messages" from a distance. They are able to provide directional and informational messages in a way that enables persons who are blind to travel as independently as persons who can read print signs.
Discussion: Remote infrared audible signs (RIAS) have been found to be a particularly effective means to make wayfinding information accessible to persons who are blind or who have print disabilities. Many transmission media are potentially available for use in communicating wayfinding information to people with print-reading disabilities (e.g., blindness, low vision, dyslexia, and mental retardation). A key concern at this stage of technology development is the possibility of blocking the development of new technologies by inadvertently limiting compliance to existing technologies.
Discussion: Currently, there is a need to provide a uniform protocol for communication of information by RIAS so that:
X02.4 Sidewalk/Street Transitions