End Notes

1  42 U.S.C. §12204.

2  42 U.S.C. §§12149.

3  56 Federal Register 45530, September 6, 1991 (codified at 36 CFR §1192).

4  36 CFR §1192.37.

5  56 Federal Register 45584, September 6, 1991 (codified at 49 CFR Part 38).

6  49 CFR §37.167 (b) and (c).

7  American Public Transportation Association, Draft Recommended Practice for a Fixed Route Stop Announcement and Route Identification Program (April 2, 2008) at 7-10.  The document is available at: http://www.aptastandards.com/Portals/0/Accessibility/StopAnnc/FRSA_draft_1_from_editor_1%20July%203%202008.pdf.

8  Tandy v. City of Wichita, 380 F. 3d 1277 (10 Cir. 2004); Martin v. Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, 225 F. Supp. 2d 1362 (N.D. Ga. 2002); Neff v. VIA Metropolitan Transit Authority, 178 F.R.D. 185 (W.D. Tex. 1998).  See also Daniels-Finegold v. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, C.A. No. 02 CV 11504 MEL (U.S. Dist. Ct. Mass. filed July 25, 2002) alleging system-wide problems in providing accessible public transportation, including failure to announce stops and routes.

9  The compliance review reports are available at: http://www.fta.dot.gov/civilrights/ada/civil_rights_3899.html.

10  National Council on Disability, Current State of Transportation for People with Disabilities in the United States (June 13, 2005).  The report is available at: http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/2005/current_state.htm.

11  American Public Transportation Association, 2009 Public Transportation Fact Book at 17.  The document is available at: http://www.apta.com/gap/policyresearch/Documents/APTA_2009_Fact_Book.pdf.

12  Vehicle operators will have to announce stops and routes if automated announcements fail.

13  The draft revisions to the transportation vehicle accessibility guidelines and public comments on the draft revisions are available at: http://www.access-board.gov/transit.

14  49 CFR §§ 37.71, 37.73, 37.75 and 38.21 (a).

15  49 U.S.C. §5335; 49 CFR Part 630.

16  VOMS does not include atypical days (e.g., July 4th holiday) or one-time special events (e.g., political convention).  NTD Glossary at: http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/Glossary.htm.

17  Vehicles operated by contractors are reported as “purchased transportation services” in the National Transit Database.  NTD Glossary at: http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/Glossary.htm.

18  49 CFR §37.23 (b).

19  49 CFR §37.37 (a).

20  If the transit agencies provide the buses to the private entities to operate, the transit agencies are responsible for providing the automated announcements.  If the private entities deploy buses from their existing fleets to operate in the fixed route systems under contract with the transit agencies, the buses are not required to be retrofitted with automated announcements, but the vehicle operators would have to announce stops and routes.

21  Transit agencies that recently received federal grants to provide automated announcements or are in the process of procuring automated announcements are included among the transit agencies that currently provide automated announcements.

22  Automatic vehicle location (AVL) technology uses global position satellite (GPS) receivers to calculate the real-time location of a vehicle, and transmits the data to a central facility by radio or other wireless communications systems.  The data is used to monitor on-time performance and improve adherence to schedules.  Automated stop and route announcements can be integrated with AVL technology.

23  The Omaha Transit Authority, Transit Authority of River City, Central New York Regional Transportation Authority, and San Diego Metropolitan Transit System deploy AVL technology.

24  The cost estimates in Appendices C and D do not include GPS receivers since 4 of the transit agencies that do not currently provide automated announcements equip their buses with GPS receivers.

25  The bus equipment spare parts costs are assumed to be incurred in the 1st year of the 12 year bus replacement cycle, and the mid-life software upgrade costs are assumed to be incurred in the 7th year of the 12 year bus replacement cycle.

26  The cost estimates in Table 7 include the costs for GPS receivers for the 3 transit agencies that do not equip their buses with GPS receivers.