Appendix F: Color Names Used by Participants to Describe Detectable Warnings

The complete list of color descriptions used by participants is given below. These are summarized for each of the 13 detectable warnings seen on each of the four sidewalks. The number of responses (n) refers to total number of descriptions provided. Participants who did not see the detectable warning gave no response. If participants provided multiple responses (e.g., “It’s either yellow or orange or red.”), the first two descriptions were recorded. If participants provided hybrid responses (e.g., “It’s a blue-gray.”), both colors were recorded. Furthermore, similar color descriptions (e.g., beige and tan; gray and light gray) were combined into single categories.

White Detectable Warning (N=187 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=50)

Asphalt
(n=51)

White Concrete (n=35)

Brown Concrete (n=51)

White

44

45

30

43

Gray

3

3

4

2

Off-White, Cream

1

1

1

3

White w/ Black border

1

2

0

2

Yellow

1

0

0

1

Light Gray Detectable Warning (N=222 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=48)

Asphalt
(n=59)

White Concrete (n=59)

Brown Concrete (n=56)

Gray

35

41

41

43

Blue

11

10

12

14

Green

1

1

3

1

White

1

2

0

1

Brown, Beige, Tan

0

3

2

5

Off-White, Cream

0

2

0

0

Silver

0

0

1

0


White Concrete Detectable Warning (N=184 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=51)

Asphalt
(n=56)

White Concrete (n=20)

Brown Concrete (n=57)

White

35

38

16

41

Off-White, Cream

10

5

0

4

Gray

4

6

2

4

Beige, Tan

2

2

1

4

Yellow

0

2

0

1

White w/ Black Border

0

2

0

1

Green

0

0

1

0

Light w/ Dark border

0

0

0

1

White w/ Yellow stripe

0

1

0

0

Light Silver

0

0

0

1


Brown Concrete Detectable Warning (N=183 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=41)

Asphalt
(n=61)

White Concrete (n=60)

Brown Concrete (n=21)

Brown, Beige, Tan

23

30

32

16

Gray

6

18

13

2

Green

7

7

2

0

Black

0

0

6

0

Brick Red

1

3

0

1

Blue

1

1

3

0

Off-White, Cream

1

1

0

1

Red

1

0

1

1

Orange

1

1

0

0

Unknown

0

0

2

0


Dark Gray Detectable Warning (N=217 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=51)

Asphalt
(n=45)

White Concrete (n=63)

Brown Concrete (n=58)

Gray

32

30

28

32

Black

8

3

21

6

Blue

8

9

9

15

Brown

2

1

2

1

Green

0

1

2

1

Unknown

1

0

0

2

Yellow

0

0

1

1

Clear

0

1

0

0


Federal Yellow Detectable Warning (N=209 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=51)

Asphalt
(n=46)

White Concrete (n=56)

Brown Concrete (n=56)

Yellow

37

39

36

41

Orange

5

7

5

2

White

6

4

1

4

Beige, Tan

0

1

1

3

Gray

1

1

1

1

Red

1

2

0

0

Off-White, Cream

0

0

0

2

Black/White stripes

0

1

0

1

Gold

0

1

0

1

Green

0

0

1

0

Blue

0

0

1

0

Yellow w/ White stripe

1

0

0

0

Blue/Yellow stripes

0

0

0

1

Pale Yellow Detectable Warning (N=208 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=54)

Asphalt
(n=55)

White Concrete (n=45)

Brown Concrete (n=54)

Yellow

35

39

36

35

White

7

6

2

7

Beige, Tan

3

3

3

6

Gray

3

4

0

3

Off-White, Cream

3

2

1

2

Orange

0

1

2

0

Blue

0

0

1

0

Red

0

0

1

0

Gray and White

0

0

1

0

Unknown

0

0

0

1

Yellow w White stripe

1

0

0

0

Bright Red Detectable Warning (N=210 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=46)

Asphalt
(n=56)

White Concrete (n=56)

Brown Concrete (n=52)

Red

35

39

41

37

Orange

7

11

1

6

Brown

2

1

7

1

Gray

0

3

2

5

Black

1

0

4

0

Rust

1

1

0

2

Pink

0

1

1

0

Unknown stripes

0

0

0

1



Orange-Red Detectable Warning (N=208 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=44)

Asphalt
(n=54)

White Concrete (n=57)

Brown Concrete (n=53)

Red

30

27

34

26

Orange

13

20

11

12

Brown

2

3

5

6

Gray

0

1

3

2

Black

0

0

4

1

Brick red

0

1

0

1

Rust

0

0

0

2

Green

1

0

0

1

Blue

0

0

0

1

Maroon

0

0

0

1

Yellow

0

1

0

0

 

Black Detectable Warning (N=194 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=50)

Asphalt
(n=41)

White Concrete (n=52)

Brown Concrete (n=51)

Black

41

36

41

44

Gray

3

2

3

1

Blue

1

0

1

2

Brown

0

0

3

1

Green

0

1

1

1

Black w. White border

1

0

1

1

Unknown

2

0

1

0

Silver

0

1

0

1

Red

0

1

0

0

Gray/White stripes

1

0

0

0

Yellow

1

0

0

0

Black w/ Red domes

0

0

1

0


Black with White Border Detectable Warning (N=198 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=49)

Asphalt
(n=50)

White Concrete (n=50)

Brown Concrete (n=49)

Black w/ White border

38

38

29

40

Black

0

0

13

1

Dark w/ Light border

3

2

0

3

Hollow White Rectangle

1

3

0

1

Unknown w/ White Border

1

2

0

1

Gray

1

2

0

0

Black-andWhite unknown pattern

1

2

0

0

White w/ Black horizontal bar in middle

1

1

0

1

Black w/ Gray border

1

1

0

1

Brown

0

0

2

0

Dark Gray w/ White Boarder

2

0

0

0

Dark Gray w/ vertical stripes

0

0

0

1

Gray w/ White horizontal line

1

0

0

0

Black w/ shiny bars

0

0

1

0

Blue

0

0

1

0

Unknown

0

0

1

0

White

0

1

0

0


Black / White Stripes Detectable Warning (N=198 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=48)

Asphalt
(n=51)

White Concrete (n=50)

Brown Concrete (n=49)

Black/White stripes

43

35

40

40

Dark/Light stripes

3

3

3

2

White stripes

0

7

0

2

Black stripes

0

0

4

0

White

1

2

0

0

Black-and-white unknown pattern

1

1

0

1

Gray stripes

0

1

1

0

Black/Yellow stripes

0

0

0

1

Blue/White stripes

0

0

0

1

Blue/Yellow stripes

0

0

0

1

Gray/Brown stripes

0

0

0

1

Black

0

0

1

0

Brown/White stripes

0

0

1

0

Black w/ White border

0

1

0

0

Green stripes

0

1

0

0


White with Black Border Detectable Warning (N=196 responses)

Description

Brick
(n=48)

Asphalt
(n=50)

White Concrete (n=48)

Brown Concrete (n=50)

White w/ Black border

34

25

39

40

White

6

19

0

5

Black-and-White

2

1

2

0

Light w/ Dark border

3

0

2

1

Off-White w/ Black border

0

1

1

1

Gray

1

2

0

0

Off-White, Cream

1

0

0

1

Gray w/ Black border

0

0

1

0

Gray w/ dark Gray border

0

0

1

0

Hollow Black rectangle

0

0

1

0

White w/ Brown border

0

0

1

0

White w/ dark Gray border

1

0

0

0

Brown/ White stripes

0

0

0

1

Blue

0

1

0

0

Brown

0

0

0

1

Off-White w/ Blue border

0

1

0

0