Chapter 6—Curb Ramp Examples

by Lee R. Kenderdine, Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee; Janet Barlow, Accessible Design for the Blind; Laurie Kozisek, PE, City of Anchorage and Alaska Department of Transportation; and Chuck Yancey, Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee

Introduction

When engineers and architects work on a project that includes alterations within the rights-of-way, the construction of the curb ramps will require thought and planning. There is no standard layout for a curb ramp—each and every curb ramp is unique. The curb ramp must be designed to meet the existing topographical and physical constraints, and the requirements for curb ramp slope, cross slope, landings, and connection to the street.

Several factors need to be achieved to construct a curb ramp that will be usable by ALL pedestrians. For perpendicular curb ramps, the ramp slope must be perpendicular to the grade break at the gutter line. The curb ramp landing and gutter connection need to be designed and constructed so water does not pond at the base of the ramp or on the landing and debris does not accumulate. Debris and water reduce the usability of a curb ramp. The ramp and the landing need to be wide enough to be used by all users of the sidewalk system. If at all possible, the curb ramp slope needs to be aligned with the sidewalk and crosswalk to provide an additional cue to assist the visually impaired and blind persons in aligning to cross the street. Paired curb ramps on a corner allow better alignment for people using mobility aids and for pedestrians with vision impairments and make it easier to separate the APS.

This chapter provides examples of curb ramp designs that may be useful on 10 foot radius curb returns and 30 foot curb returns. In addition to topographical issues, width of the sidewalk and the distance between the sidewalk and curb can affect curb ramp design. Variations of these factors are also shown in the examples.

10-foot Radius Curb Returns

Example 1—Parallel Curb Ramp

CAD drawing of paired parallel curb ramps in 10-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated

Parallel Curb Ramp—5-foot sidewalk on tangents

  • Provides usable curb ramps where narrow (4-5‘) sidewalk is at back of curb.
  • The use of parallel curb ramps will assist the designer to construct curb ramps where the intersecting streets have considerable grade differences.
  • Landing at gutter elevation increases possibility of ponding and accumulation of debris on the landing.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain some of the curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner. The use of parallel curb ramps require the sidewalk to be raised/lowered to the landing. This will cause the pedestrians using the sidewalk system to go up and down several times when going through the area of the two curb ramps.
  • APS push button locator tone will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and the tactile arrow may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.
  • The use of paired curb ramps (a separate curb ramp and landing for each direction of crosswalk) will allow pedestrians with disabilities to be aligned with the crossing direction while waiting to cross the street.
  • Paired curb ramps help meet the separation requirements for APS.

Example 2—Parallel Curb Ramp, Large Shared Landing

CAD drawing of single parallel curb ramp in 10-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated

Blended Transition Curb Ramp—5-foot sidewalk on fan

  • Provides usable curb ramps where narrow (4-5‘) sidewalk is at back of curb.
  • Layout moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection.
  • Landing at gutter elevation increases potential for ponding and accumulation of debris on the landing.
  • Slope of parallel curb ramps in sidewalk may provide a directional cue to pedestrians who are visually impaired or blind.
  • APS push button locator tone will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and and tactile arrow may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.
  • If landing is small, it may eliminate the ability to separate the APS push buttons and speakers by more than 10 feet. If APS pairs are closer than 10 feet, speech walk messages and additional features are needed to clarify walk indication.

Example 3—Perpendicular Curb Ramp

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps in narrow sidewalk at 10-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—5-foot sidewalk on tangents

  • Provides usable curb ramps where narrow (4-5‘) sidewalk is at back of curb, if additional right-of-way is available.
  • This design will require the use of additional/available right-of-way.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain the curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Curb ramp must lie entirely within the crosswalk limits; flares are not part of PAR and can lie outside crosswalk markings.
  • Curb ramp slope aligned with crosswalk direction will provide a directional cue for the visually impaired and blind pedestrians, particularly when combined with tactile arrow of APS.
  • The use of paired curb ramps (a separate curb ramp and landing for each direction of crosswalk) will allow pedestrians with disabilities to be aligned with the crossing direction while waiting to cross the street.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the separation requirements for APS.
  • APS push button locator tones will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and tactile arrows may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.

Example 4—Perpendicular Curb Ramp

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps in wide sidewalk at 10-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—12-foot sidewalk on tangents

  • 12-foot sidewalk at back of curb provides more room for directional curb ramps.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain the curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Curb ramp must lie entirely within the crosswalk limits; flares are not part of PAR and can lie outside crosswalk markings.
  • Curb ramp slope aligned with crosswalk direction will provide directional cue for the visually impaired and blind, particularly when combined with tactile arrow of APS.
  • Paired curb ramps will help to meet the separation requirements for APS.
  • APS push button locator tones will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and tactile arrow may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.

Example 5—Combination Parallel and Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired combination curb ramps in sidewalk with parkway at 10-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Combination Curb Ramp—6-foot parkway with 6-foot sidewalk on curve

  • 6-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR provides additional space for perpendicular curb ramps.
  • Combination of parallel and perpendicular curb ramps will allow designers to adjust the elevation of the sidewalk to meet the landing. This may be required by constraints behind the sidewalk.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain some of the curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Curb ramp slope in line with sidewalk and crosswalks, and edge of landscaping aligned with crosswalk provides excellent direction cues to pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the separation requirements for APS.
  • APS push button locator tone and tactile arrow will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.

Example 6—Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps in sidewalk with parkway at 10-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—6-foot parkway with 6-foot sidewalk on curve

  • 6-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR provides additional space for directional perpendicular curb ramps.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain majority of the curb height which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Curb ramp slope aligned with crosswalk direction will provide directional cue for the visually impaired and blind pedestrians, particularly when combined with tactile arrow of APS.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the separation requirements for APS.
  • APS push button locator tone will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and tactile arrow may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.

Example 7—Combination Parallel and Perpendicular Curb Ramps
(slope in sidewalk approach and curb ramp perpendicular to the street)

CAD drawing of paired combination curb ramps in sidewalk with parkway at 10-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Combination Curb Ramp—8-foot parkway with 5-foot sidewalk on curve

  • Grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR allows room for perpendicular curb ramps.
  • Parallel ramps in sidewalk allow designer to adjust the elevation of the sidewalk to meet the landing. This may assist in areas where there are constraints behind the sidewalk.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain most of the curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Curb ramps in line with sidewalk and crosswalks, and edge of landscaping aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk provide excellent direction cues to pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired.
  • Care must be taken to keep APS push buttons at the edge of the parkway and close enough to the landing so they are within the reach range.
  • In this example, closeness of the APS to each other will require the use of speech walk messages and additional features to clarify walk indication. If curb ramps are moved further from the corner apex, so the APS are more than 10 feet apart, speech walk messages and additional features will not be necessary.

Example 8—Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps in sidewalk with parkway at 10-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—8-foot parkway with 5-foot sidewalk on curve

  • 8-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR allows adequate room for directional perpendicular curb ramps.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain the curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Curb ramp slope in line with sidewalk and crosswalks, and edge of landscaping aligned with crosswalk provides excellent directional cues to pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired.
  • The use of directional curb ramps will allow pedestrians with disabilities to be aligned with the crossing while waiting to cross the street and when entering the street.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the separation requirements for APS.
  • In this example, the APS pair are closer than 10 feet, thus requiring the use of speech walk messages and additional features to clarify walk indication. If landing area is enlarged and ramps are moved to the outside edge of the crosswalks, this may not be necessary.
  • APS push button locator tones will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and tactile arrows may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.

30-foot Radius Curb Returns

Example 9—Parallel Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired parallel curb ramps at tangent in narrow sidewalk at 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Parallel Curb Ramp—5-foot sidewalk on tangents

  • Provides usable curb ramps where narrow (4-5‘) sidewalk is at back of curb.
  • The use of parallel curb ramps will assist the designer to construct curb ramps where the intersecting streets have considerable grade differences.
  • Landing at gutter height with less than 2% slope increases potential for ponding and accumulation of debris on the landing.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain some of the curb height, which discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • The use of a parallel curb ramp will require that the sidewalk be sloped to the landing. This will cause the pedestrians using the sidewalk system to go up and down several times when going through the area of the two curb ramps.
  • Crosswalk set back from intersection, but crosswalk distance is shorter due to location away from apex.
  • Level landing at crosswalk location may provide a directional cue for the visually impaired and blind persons, particularly when combined with tactile arrow of APS.
  • APS push button locator tone will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and the tactile arrow may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.
  • The use of paired curb ramps (a separate curb ramp and landing for each direction of crosswalk) will allow pedestrians with disabilities to be aligned with the crossing direction while waiting to cross the street.
  • Paired curb ramps help assist to meet the separation requirements for APS.

Example 10—Parallel Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired parallel curb ramps on radius in narrow sidewalk at 30-foot radius corner.

Parallel Curb Ramp—5-foot sidewalk on curve

  • Provides usable curb ramps where narrow (4-5‘) sidewalk is at back of curb.
  • Landing at gutter height with less than 2% slope increases possibility of drainage problems, ponding, and accumulation of debris on the landing.
  • The use of parallel curb ramps will assist the designer to construct curb ramps where the intersecting streets have considerable grade differences.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain some of the curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • The use of a parallel curb ramp will require that the sidewalk be sloped to the landing. This will cause the pedestrians using the sidewalk system to go up and down several times when going through the area of the two curb ramps.
  • Curb ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • Layout moves the crosswalks closer to the intersection.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the separation requirements for APS.
  • APS push button locator tones will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and tactile arrows may provide some assistance with aligning to cross. Care must be taken to keep APS push buttons close enough to the landing so they are within the reach range. Tactile arrows should be aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk.

Example 11—Parallel Curb Ramps, Shared Landing

CAD drawing of single parallel curb ramp in sidewalk at 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Parallel Curb Ramp, One Direction—5-foot sidewalk

(single shared curb ramp is less desirable than paired ramp)

  • Provides usable curb ramps where narrow (4-5‘) sidewalk is at back of curb.
  • The use of parallel curb ramps will assist the designer to construct curb ramps where the intersecting streets have considerable grade differences.
  • Layout moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection.
  • Landing at gutter height with less than 2% slope increases possibility of drainage problems, ponding, and accumulation of debris on the landing.
  • Parallel ramps and shared landing don't provide a directional cue for pedestrians who are visually impaired or blind.
  • Curb ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and the wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • APS push buttons at each end of the landing will generally be more than 10 feet apart and meet separation requirements. If APS are closer than 10 feet to each other, speech walk messages and additional features will be needed to clarify walk indication. Tactile arrows should be aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk.

Example 12—Parallel Ramps, One Shared Landing

CAD drawing of single parallel curb ramp in narrow sidewalk at 30-foot radius corner with full corner landing; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—8-foot parkway with 5-foot sidewalk on curve

  • Do not use this design unless constraints, such as drainage structures, vaults, etc. require it; paired ramps are always preferred.
  • Provides usable curb ramps where narrow (4-5‘) sidewalk is at back of curb.
  • Landing at gutter elevation increases possibility of drainage problems, ponding, and accumulation of debris on the landing.
  • Location of landing moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection.
  • Landing location requires that wheelchair users enter street at an angle, then turn in crosswalk direction.
  • 4-foot by 4-foot maneuvering area required in street where crosswalks meet.
  • Single shared landing eliminates the ability to separate the APS push buttons on two poles. Will require the use of speech walk messages and additional features to clarify walk indication.

Example 13—Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps at tangent points in wide sidewalk at 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—12-foot sidewalk on tangents

  • 12-foot sidewalk at back of curb provides more room for directional curb ramps.
  • Crosswalks are a greater distance from intersection, but crosswalk distance is shorter due to location away from apex.
  • Curb ramp must lie entirely within the crosswalk limits; flares are not part of PAR and can lie outside crosswalk markings.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain curb height; assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Curb ramp slope aligned with crosswalk direction will provide directional cue for the visually impaired and blind, particularly when combined with tactile arrow of APS.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the separation requirements for APS.
  • APS push button locator tones will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and tactile arrow may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.

Example 14—Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps on radius in wide sidewalk at 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—12- foot sidewalk on curve

  • 12-foot sidewalk at back of curb provides more room for directional curb ramps.
  • May be necessary to move curb ramps close to the apex, as shown here, due to the grades of the two cross streets or crosswalk location.
  • This design moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection.
  • Curb ramp must lie entirely within the crosswalk limits; flares are not part of PAR and can lie outside crosswalk markings.
  • Curb ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • Curb ramp and landing locations allow separation of APS push buttons and sounds by more than
    10 feet.
  • APS push button locator tones will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and tactile arrow may provide some assistance with aligning to cross. Tactile arrow should be aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk.

Example 15—Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of single perpendicular curb ramp with wide shared landing in 12-foot sidewalk at 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—12-foot sidewalk on fan)

  • No separation of 12-foot sidewalk with curb.
  • Possible use due to the grades of the two cross streets.
  • Moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection.
  • Single curb ramp as shown may increase possibility of drainage problems.
  • Ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • Lack of curb at apex of curb return radius eliminates curb protection for pedestrians from vehicles cutting the corner.
  • APS push buttons at each end of the landing will generally be more than 10 feet apart and meet separation requirements. If APS are closer than 10 feet to each other, speech walk messages and additional features will be needed to clarify walk indication. Tactile arrows should be aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk.

Example 16—One Perpendicular Curb Ramp

CAD drawing of single perpendicular curb ramp with narrow shared landing in 12-foot sidewalk at 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated

Perpendicular Curb Ramp, One Direction—12-foot sidewalk
(single shared curb ramp is less desirable than paired ramp)

  • Do not use this design unless constraints, such as drainage structures, vaults, etc. require it.
  • No separation of 12-foot sidewalk with curb.
  • Sidewalk elevation stays the same for pedestrians traveling around the corner.
  • Moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection.
  • Ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • Single shared landing eliminates the ability to separate the APS push buttons on two poles. Will require the use of speech walk messages and additional features to clarify walk indication.

Example 17—One Perpendicular Curb Ramp

CAD drawing of single perpendicular curb ramp in 12-foot sidewalk at 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp, One Direction—12-foot sidewalk
(single shared curb ramp is less desirable than paired ramp)

  • Do not use this design unless constraints, such as drainage structures, vaults, etc. require it; paired ramps are always preferred.
  • 12-foot sidewalk at back of curb.
  • Curb ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • Design moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection, but landing is needed at the base of the ramp, outside the travel lanes.
  • Where curb ramps are the sole connection to the street, designers should consider providing wider curb ramps where pedestrian volumes are high.
  • 4-foot by 4-foot maneuvering area required in street where crosswalks meet.
  • APS push buttons and speakers are located in line with crosswalk lines with more than 10 feet of required separation. Level landing is needed beside the push buttons, as well as at the top of the ramp. Tactile arrows on APS should be aligned with the direction of travel on the crosswalk.

Example 18—Perpendicular Curb Ramp

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps in sidewalk with parkway on 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—6-foot parkway with 6-foot sidewalk on tangents

  • 6-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR.
  • Sidewalk elevation stays the same for pedestrians traveling around the corner.
  • Crosswalks are a greater distance from intersection.
  • Landscaping layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain majority of the curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Curb ramp slope aligned with crosswalk direction will provide directional cue for the visually impaired and blind, particularly when combined with tactile arrow of APS.
  • The use of paired curb ramps will allow pedestrians with disabilities to be aligned with the crossing while waiting to cross the street.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the separation requirements for APS. Care must be taken to
    keep APS push buttons close enough to the landing and edge of landscaping so they are
    within the reach range.

Example 19—Perpendicular Curb Ramp

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps on radius in sidewalk with continuous parkway on 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—6-foot parkway with 6-foot sidewalk on curve

  • 6-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR.
  • Landscaping enables area between the two curb ramps to retain the curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Layout moves the crosswalks closer to the intersection.
  • Landscaping edge aligned with the direction of travel on the crosswalk and tactile arrow on APS can provide a directional cue for the visually impaired and blind persons.
  • Curb ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and the wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • In this example, APS are more than 10 feet apart. If curb ramps and landings are moved closer to the corner that separation distance may not be met and APS will require the use of speech walk messages and additional features to clarify walk indication.
  • Tactile arrows should be aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk.

Example 20—Combination Parallel and Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps at tangent in sidewalk with continuous parkway on 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Combination Curb Ramp—6-foot parkway with 6-foot sidewalk on tangents

  • 6-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR.
  • Parallel ramps will allow designer to adjust the elevation of the sidewalk to meet the landing. This may be due to constraints behind the sidewalks.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • The use of a parallel curb ramp will require that the sidewalk to be sloped to the landing. This will cause the pedestrians using the sidewalk system to go up and down several times when going through the area of the two curb ramps.
  • Crosswalks are a greater distance from intersection but crosswalk distance is shorter due to location away from apex.
  • Curb ramp slope aligned with crosswalk direction will provide directional cue for the visually impaired and blind, particularly when combined with tactile arrow of APS.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the separation requirements for APS.
  • Care must be taken to keep APS push buttons close enough to the landing and edge of landscaping so they are within the reach range.

Example 21—Combination Parallel and Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired combination curb ramps on radius on sidewalk with continuous parkway on 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Combination Curb Ramp—6-foot parkway with 6-foot sidewalk on curve

  • 6-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR.
  • Parallel curb ramps will allow the designer to slope the sidewalk to meet the landing. This may be needed due to constraints behind the sidewalk. The use of parallel curb ramps will assist the designer to construct curb ramps where the intersecting streets have considerable grade differences.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • The use of a parallel curb ramp will require that the sidewalk to be raised/lowered to the landing. This will cause the pedestrians using the sidewalk system to go up and down several times when going through the area of the two curb ramps.
  • Layout moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection.
  • Ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the separation requirements for APS.
  • Care must be taken to keep APS push buttons close enough to the landing and edge of landscaping so they are within the reach range.

Example 22—One Perpendicular Curb Ramp

CAD drawing of single perpendicular curb ramp on radius on sidewalk with continuous parkway on 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Parallel Curb Ramp, One Direction—6-foot parkway with 6-foot sidewalk
(single shared curb ramp is less desirable than paired ramps)

  • Do not use this design unless constraints, such as drainage structures, vaults, etc. require it; paired ramps are always preferred.
  • 6-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR.
  • Curb ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • Moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection, but landing is needed at the base of the curb ramp, outside the travel lanes.
  • Single shared landing eliminates the ability to separate the APS push buttons on two poles. Will require the use of speech walk messages and additional features to clarify walk indication.
  • Where curb ramps are the sole connection to the street, designers should consider providing wider curb ramps where pedestrian volumes are high.
  • 4-foot by 4-foot maneuvering area required in street where crosswalks meet.

Example 23—Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps at tangent on sidewalk with continuous parkway on 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—8-foot parkway with 5-foot sidewalk on tangents

  • 8-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR allows for perpendicular curb ramps.
  • Crosswalk is a greater distance from intersection, but crosswalk distance is shorter due to location away from apex.
  • Layout enables area between the two curb ramps to retain curb height, which assists in drainage and discourages vehicles cutting across the corner.
  • Curb ramp slope in line with sidewalk and crosswalks and edge of landscaping aligned with crosswalk provides excellent direction cues to pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired.
  • Paired curb ramps will help meet the more than 10 foot separation requirements for APS.
  • APS push button locator tone will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and tactile arrow may provide some assistance with aligning to cross.

Example 24—Perpendicular Curb Ramps

CAD drawing of paired perpendicular curb ramps on radius on sidewalk with continuous parkway on 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp—8-foot parkway with 5-foot sidewalk on curve

  • 8-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR allows room for perpendicular curb ramps.
  • Location of curb ramps allows moving the crosswalk closer to the intersection.
  • Landscaping around corner allows full height curb at corner.
  • Landscaping edge aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk and tactile arrow will provide directional cue for the visually impaired and blind persons.
  • Curb ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • Where curb ramps are the sole connection to the street, designers should consider providing wider curb ramps where pedestrian volumes are high.
  • APS push button locator tones will assist blind or visually impaired persons in finding crossing location and tactile arrows may provide some assistance with aligning to cross. Tactile arrows should be aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk.

Example 25—One Perpendicular Curb Ramp

CAD drawing of single perpendicular curb ramp on radius on sidewalk with continuous parkway on 30-foot radius corner; APS locations indicated.

Perpendicular Curb Ramp, One Direction–8-foot parkway with 5-foot sidewalk (single shared curb ramp is less desirable than paired ramps)

  • Do not use this design unless constraints, such as drainage structures, vaults, etc. require its use; paired ramps area always preferred.
  • 8-foot grass area or furnishing zone between curb and PAR.
  • Moves the crosswalk closer to the intersection.
  • Where curb ramps are the sole connection to the street, designers should consider providing wider curb ramps where pedestrian volumes are high.
  • Curb ramps that do not align with the direction of travel on the crosswalk direct visually impaired and blind pedestrians toward the center of the intersection and wheelchair users have to make a directional adjustment in the roadway.
  • Single shared landing eliminates the ability to separate the APS push buttons on two poles. Will require the use of speech walk messages and additional features to clarify walk indication.

Case Study—Linking to Shop Entrances Case Study: Photo shows sloping street with brick sidewalks serving shop entrances.  Level runouts on the high side of the approach are used to provide accessible routes to the entrance doors, while steps connect entrance platforms from the low side.

  • When this sidewalk was reconstructed, new level platforms were included that link the store entrances to the sloping city sidewalk.
  • This design minimizes warping of the sidewalk surface near the bottom steps so wheelchairs can stay on all four wheels when approaching the shops.