Chapter 4

CHAPTER R4: SUPPLEMENTARY TECHNICAL PROVISIONS

R401 Protruding Objects

R401.1 General. Protruding objects on sidewalks and other pedestrian circulation paths shall comply with R401 and shall not reduce the clear width required for pedestrian access routes.

Advisory R401.1 General. Banners, awnings, tree branches, sidewalk sculpture, and temporary street or highway signs can become protruding objects if not placed or maintained properly.

R401.2 Protrusion Limits. Objects with leading edges more than 685 mm (27 in) and not more than 2 m (80 in) above the finish surface or ground shall protrude 100 mm (4 in) maximum horizontally into the pedestrian circulation path.

R401.3 Post-Mounted Objects. Objects mounted on free-standing posts or pylons, 685 mm (27 inches) minimum and 2030 mm (80 inches) maximum above the finish surface or ground, shall overhang circulation paths 100 mm (4 inches) maximum beyond the post or pylon base measured 150 mm (6 inches) minimum above the finish surface or ground. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 305 mm (12 in), the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 685 mm (27 in) maximum or 2 m (80 in) minimum above the finish surface.

R401.4 Reduced Vertical Clearance. Guardrails or other barriers shall be provided where the vertical clearance is less than 2 m (80 in) high. The leading edge of such guardrail or barrier shall be located 685 mm (27 in) maximum above the finish surface or ground.

R402 Clear Space

R402.1 General. Clear space at accessible pedestrian signals (APS), street furniture, and operable parts shall comply with R402.

R402.2 Surface Characteristics. Surfaces of clear spaces shall comply with R301.5 and shall have a slope and cross slope of 2 percent maximum.

R402.3 Size. The clear space shall be 760 mm (30 in) minimum by 1220 mm (48 in) minimum.

R402.4 Knee and Toe Clearance. Unless otherwise specified, clear space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with R403.

R402.5.Position. Unless otherwise specified, clear space shall be positioned for either forward or parallel approach to an element.

R402.6 Approach. One full unobstructed side of the clear space shall adjoin a pedestrian access route or adjoin another clear space.

R402.7 Maneuvering Space. Where a clear space is located in an alcove or otherwise confined on all or part of three sides, additional maneuvering space shall be provided in accordance with R402.7.1 and R402.7.2.

R402.7.1 Forward Approach. Alcoves shall be 915 mm (36 in) wide minimum where the depth exceeds 610 mm (24 in).

R402.7.2 Parallel Approach. Alcoves shall be 1525 mm (60 in) wide minimum where the depth exceeds 380 mm (15 in).

R403 Knee and Toe Clearance

R403.1 General. Where space beneath an element is included as part of clear space, the space shall comply with R403. Additional space shall not be prohibited beneath an element but shall not be considered as part of the clear space.

Advisory R403.1 General. Clearances are measured in relation to the usable clear space, not necessarily to the vertical support for an element. When determining clearance under an object for required maneuvering space, care should be taken to ensure the space is clear of any obstructions.

R403.2 Toe Clearance.

R403.2.1 General. Space under an element between the finish surface and 230 mm (9 in) above the finish surface shall be considered toe clearance and shall comply with R403.2.

R403.2.2 Maximum Depth. Toe clearance shall extend 635 mm (25 in) maximum under an element.

R403.2.3 Minimum Required Depth. Where toe clearance is required at an element as part of a clear space, the toe clearance shall extend 430 mm (17 in) minimum under the element.

R403.2.4 Additional Clearance. Space extending more than 150 mm (6 in) beyond the available knee clearance at 230 mm (9 in) above the finish surface shall not be considered toe clearance.

R403.2.5 Width. Toe clearance shall be 760 mm (30 in) wide minimum.

R403.3 Knee Clearance.

R403.3.1 General. Space under an element between 230 mm (9 in) and 685 mm (27 in) above the finish surface shall be considered knee clearance and shall comply with R403.3.

R403.3.2 Maximum Depth. Knee clearance shall extend 635 mm (25 in) maximum under an element at 230 mm (9 in) above the finish surface.

R403.3.3 Minimum Required Depth. Where knee clearance is required under an element as part of a clear space, the knee clearance shall be 280 mm (11 in) deep minimum at 230 mm (9 in) above the finish surface, and 205 mm (8 in) deep minimum at 685 mm (27 in) above the finish surface.

R403.3.4 Clearance Reduction. Between 230 mm (9 in) and 685 mm (27 in) above the finish surface, the knee clearance shall be permitted to reduce at a rate of 25 mm (one inch) in depth for each 150 mm (6 in) in height.

R403.3.5 Width. Knee clearance shall be 760 mm (30 in) wide minimum.

R404 Reach Ranges

R404.1 General. Reach ranges shall comply with R404.

R404.2 Forward Reach.

R404.2.1 Unobstructed. Where a forward reach is unobstructed, the high forward reach shall be 1220 mm (48 in) maximum and the low forward reach shall be 380 mm (15 in) minimum above the finish surface.

R404.2.2 Obstructed High Reach. Where a high forward reach is over an obstruction, the clear space shall extend beneath the element for a distance not less than the required reach depth over the obstruction. The high forward reach shall be 1220 mm (48 in) maximum where the reach depth is 510 mm (20 in) maximum. Where the reach depth exceeds 510 mm (20 in), the high forward reach shall be 1120 mm (44 in) maximum and the reach depth shall be 635 mm (25 in) maximum.

R404.3 Side Reach.

R404.3.1 Unobstructed. Where a clear space allows a parallel approach to an element and the side reach is unobstructed, the high side reach shall be 1220 mm (48 in) maximum and the low side reach shall be 380 mm (15 in) minimum above the finish surface. An obstruction shall be permitted between the clear space and the element where the depth of the obstruction is 255 mm (10 in) maximum.

R404.3.2 Obstructed High Reach. Where a clear space allows a parallel approach to an element and the high side reach is over an obstruction, the height of the obstruction shall be 865 mm (34 in) maximum and the depth of the obstruction shall be 610 mm (24 in) maximum. The high side reach shall be 1220 mm (48 in) maximum for a reach depth of 255 mm (10 in) maximum. Where the reach depth exceeds 266 mm (10 in), the high side reach shall be 1170 mm (46 in) maximum for a reach depth of 610 mm (24 in) maximum.

R405 Operable Parts

R405.1 General. Operable parts shall comply with R405.

R405.2 Clear Space. A clear space complying with R402 shall be provided.

R405.3 Height. Operable parts shall be placed within one or more of the reach ranges specified in R404.

R405.4 Operation. Operable parts shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate operable parts shall be 22 N (5 lbs) maximum.

R406 Ramps

R406.1 General. Ramps shall comply with R406.

R406.2 Slope. Ramp runs shall have a running slope between 5 percent minimum and 8.3 percent maximum.

Advisory R406.2 Slope. To accommodate the widest range of users, provide ramps with the least possible running slope and, wherever possible, accompany ramps with stairs for use by those individuals for whom distance presents a greater barrier than steps, for example, people with heart disease or limited stamina.

R406.3 Cross Slope. Cross slope of ramp runs shall be 2 percent maximum.

R406.4 Surfaces. Ramp run surfaces shall comply with R301.5.

R406.5 Rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be 76 cm (30 in) maximum.

R406.6 Landings. Ramps shall have landings at the top and the bottom of each ramp run. Landings shall comply with R406.6.

R406.6.1 Slope. Perpendicular and parallel ramp landing slopes shall be 2 percent maximum.

R406.6.2 Width. The landing clear width shall be at least as wide as the widest ramp run leading to the landing.

R406.6.3 Length. The landing clear length shall be 1.5 m (5.0 ft) long minimum.

R406.6.4 Change in Direction. Ramps that change direction between runs at landings shall have a clear landing 1.5 m (5.0 ft) minimum by 1.5 m (5.0 ft) minimum.

R406.7 Handrails. Ramp runs with a rise greater than 15 cm (6 in) shall have handrails complying with R408.

R406.8 Edge Protection. Edge protection complying with R406.8.1 or R406.8.2 shall be provided on each side of ramp runs. Edge protection shall not be required on curb ramps and their landings.

R406.8.1 Extended Ramp Surface. The surface of the ramp run or landing shall extend 31 cm (12 in) minimum beyond the inside face of a handrail complying with R408.

Advisory R406.8.1 Extended Ramp Surface. The extended surface prevents wheelchair casters and crutch tips from slipping off the ramp surface.

R406.8.2 Curb or Barrier. A curb or barrier shall be provided that prevents the passage of a 100 mm (4 in) diameter sphere, where any portion of the sphere is within 100 mm (4 in) of the ramp surface.

R407 Stairways

R407.1 General. Stairways shall comply with R407.

R407.2 Treads and Risers. All steps on a flight of stairs shall have uniform riser heights and uniform tread depths. Risers shall be 100 mm (4 in) high minimum and 180 mm (7 in) high maximum. Treads shall be 28 cm (11 in) deep minimum.

R407.3 Open Risers. Open risers are not permitted.

R407.4 Tread Surface. Stairway treads shall comply with R301.5. Stairway treads shall have a 51 mm (2 in) minimum wide strip that contrasts visually with the tread and riser. The strip shall be located at the front of each tread and run the full width of the tread.

R407.5 Nosings. The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be 13 mm (0.5 inch) maximum. Nosings that project beyond risers shall have the underside of the leading edge curved or beveled. Risers shall be permitted to slope under the tread at an angle of 30 degrees maximum from vertical. The permitted projection of the nosing shall extend 38 mm (1.5 in) maximum over the tread below.

R407.6 Handrails. Stairs shall have handrails complying with R408.

R408 Handrails

R408.1 General. Handrails provided along walking surfaces complying with R301, required at ramps complying with R406, and required at stairs complying with R407 shall comply with R408.

Advisory R408.1 General. Handrails are required on ramp runs with a rise greater than 150 mm (6 in) and on certain stairways. Handrails are not required on walking surfaces with running slopes less than 5 percent. However, if handrails are provided on walking surfaces with running slopes less than 5 percent, they must comply with R408. Sections R408.2, R408.3, and R408.10 do not apply to handrails provided on walking surfaces with running slopes less than 5 percent as those sections only reference requirements for ramps and stairs.

R408.2 Where Required. Handrails shall be provided on both sides of stairs and ramps.

R408.3 Continuity. Handrails shall be continuous within the full length of each stair flight or ramp run. Inside handrails on switchback or dogleg stairs and ramps shall be continuous between flights or runs.

R408.4 Height. Top of gripping surfaces of handrails shall be 87 cm mm (34 in) minimum and 97 cm (38 in) maximum vertically above walking surfaces, stair nosings, and ramp surfaces. Handrails shall be at a consistent height above walking surfaces, stair nosings, and ramp surfaces.

R408.5 Clearance. Clearance between handrail gripping surfaces and adjacent surfaces shall be 38 mm (1.5 in) minimum.

R408.6 Gripping Surface. Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous along their length and shall not be obstructed along their tops or sides. The bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall not be obstructed for more than 20 percent of their length. Where provided, horizontal projections shall occur 38 mm (1.5 in) minimum below the bottom of the handrail gripping surface.

Advisory R408.6 Gripping Surface. People with disabilities, older people, and others benefit from continuous gripping surfaces that permit users to reach the fingers outward or downward to grasp the handrail.

R408.7 Cross Section. Handrail gripping surfaces shall have a cross section complying with R408.7.1 or R408.7.2.

R408.7.1 Circular Cross Section. Handrail gripping surfaces with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of 32 mm (1.25 in) minimum and 51 mm (2 in) maximum.

R408.7.2 Non-Circular Cross Sections. Handrail gripping surfaces with a non-circular cross section shall have a perimeter dimension of 100 mm (4 in) minimum and 160 mm (6.25 in) maximum, and a cross-section dimension of 57 mm (2.25 in) maximum.

R408.8 Surfaces. Handrail gripping surfaces and any surfaces adjacent to them shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements and shall have rounded edges.

R408.9 Fittings. Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

R408.10 Handrail Extensions. Handrail gripping surfaces shall extend beyond and in the same direction of stair flights and ramp runs in accordance with R408.10. Extensions shall not be required for continuous handrails at the inside turn of switchback or dogleg stairs and ramps.

R408.10.1 Top and Bottom Extension at Ramps. Ramp handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing for 31 cm (12 in) minimum beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the landing surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent ramp run.

R408.10.2 Top Extension at Stairways. At the top of a stair flight, handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing for 31 cm (12 in) minimum beginning directly above the first riser nosing. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the landing surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight.

R408.10.3 Bottom Extension at Stairways. At the bottom of a stair flight, handrails shall extend at the slope of the stair flight for a horizontal distance at least equal to one tread depth beyond the last riser nosing. Extension shall return to a wall, guard, or the landing surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight.

R409 Signs

R409.1 General. Signs shall comply with R409. Where both visual and tactile characters are required, either one sign with both visual and tactile characters, or two separate signs, one with visual, and one with tactile characters, shall be provided.

R409.2 Raised Characters. Raised characters shall comply with R409.2 and shall be duplicated in braille complying with R409.3. Raised characters shall be installed in accordance with R409.4.

Advisory R409.2 Raised Characters. Signs that are designed to be read by touch should not have sharp or abrasive edges.

R409.2.1 Depth. Raised characters shall be 0.8 mm (.03 in) minimum above their background.

R409.2.2 Case. Characters shall be uppercase.

R409.2.3 Style. Characters shall be sans serif. Characters shall not be italic, oblique, script, highly decorative, or of other unusual forms.

R409.2.4 Character Proportions. Characters shall be selected from fonts where the width of the uppercase letter "O" is 55 percent minimum and 110 percent maximum of the height of the uppercase letter "I".

R409.2.5 Character Height. Character height measured vertically from the baseline of the character shall be 16 mm (0.625 in) minimum and 51 mm (2 in) maximum based on the height of the uppercase letter "I". Where separate raised and visual characters with the same information are provided, raised character height shall be permitted to be 13 mm (0.5 in) minimum.

R409.2.6 Stroke Thickness. Stroke thickness of the uppercase letter "I" shall be 15 percent maximum of the height of the character.

R409.2.7 Character Spacing. Character spacing shall be measured between the two closest points of adjacent raised characters within a message, excluding word spaces. Where characters have rectangular cross sections, spacing between individual raised characters shall be 3.2 mm (0.125 in) minimum and 4 times the raised character stroke width maximum. Where characters have other cross sections, spacing between individual raised characters shall be 1.6 mm (.625 in) minimum and 4 times the raised character stroke width maximum at the base of the cross sections, and 3.2 mm (0.125 in) minimum and 4 times the raised character stroke width maximum at the top of the cross sections. Characters shall be separated from raised borders and decorative elements 9.5 mm (.375 in) minimum.

R409.2.8 Line Spacing. Spacing between the baselines of separate lines of raised characters within a message shall be 135 percent minimum and 170 percent maximum of the raised character height.

R409.3 Braille. Braille shall be contracted (Grade 2) and shall comply with R409.3 and R409.4.

R409.3.1 Dimensions and Capitalization. Braille dots shall have a domed or rounded shape and shall comply with Table R409.3.1. The indication of an uppercase letter or letters shall only be used before the first word of sentences, proper nouns and names, individual letters of the alphabet, initials, and acronyms.

R409.3.1 Braille Dimensions

Measurement Range

Minimum in Millimeters
Maximum in Millimeters

Dot base diameter

1.5 mm (0.059 in) to 1.6 mm (0.063 in)

Distance between two dots in the same cell1

2.3 mm (0.090 in) to 2.5 mm (0.100 in)

Distance between corresponding dots in adjacent cells1

6.1 mm (0.241 in) to 7.6 mm (0.300 in)

Dot height

0.6 mm (0.025 in) to 0.9 mm (0.037 in)

Distance between corresponding dotsfrom one cell directly below1

10 mm (0.395 in) to 10.2 mm (0.400 in)

1. Measured center to center.  

R409.3.2 Position. Braille shall be positioned below the corresponding text. If text is multi-lined, braille shall be placed below the entire text. Braille shall be separated 9.5 mm (.375 in) minimum from any other tactile characters and 9.5 mm (.375 in) minimum from raised borders and decorative elements. Braille provided on elevator car controls shall be separated 4.8 mm (.1875 in) minimum and shall be located either directly below or adjacent to the corresponding raised characters or symbols.

R409.4 Installation Height and Location. Signs with tactile characters shall comply with R409.4.

R409.4.1 Height Above Finish Floor or Ground. Tactile characters on signs shall be located 1.2 m (4.0 ft) minimum above the finish floor or ground surface, measured from the baseline of the lowest tactile character and 1.5 m (5.0 ft) maximum above the finish floor or ground surface, measured from the baseline of the highest tactile character. Tactile characters for elevator car controls shall not be required to comply with R409.4.1.

R409.5 Visual Characters. Visual characters shall comply with R409.5. Where visual characters comply with R409.2 and are accompanied by braille complying with R409.3, they shall not be required to comply with R409.5.2 through R409.5.9.

R409.5.1 Finish and Contrast. Characters and their background shall have a non-glare finish. Characters shall contrast with their background with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.

Advisory R409.5.1 Finish and Contrast. Signs are more legible for persons with low vision when characters contrast as much as possible with their background. Additional factors affecting the ease with which the text can be distinguished from its background include shadows cast by lighting sources, surface glare, and the uniformity of the text and its background colors and textures.

R409.5.2 Case. Characters shall be uppercase or lowercase or a combination of both.

R409.5.3 Style. Characters shall be conventional in form. Characters shall not be italic, oblique, script, highly decorative, or of other unusual forms.

R409.5.4 Character Proportions. Characters shall be selected from fonts where the width of the uppercase letter "O" is 55 percent minimum and 110 percent maximum of the height of the uppercase letter "I".

R409.5.5 Character Height. Minimum character height shall comply with Table R409.5.5. Viewing distance shall be measured as the horizontal distance between the character and an obstruction preventing further approach towards the sign. Character height shall be based on the uppercase letter "I".

R409.5.5 Visual Character Height

Height to Finish Floor or Ground From Baseline of Character

Horizontal Viewing Distance

Minimum Character Height

1.0 m (3.3 ft) to less than or equal to 1.8 m (5.8 ft)

less than 1.8 m (6 ft)

16 mm (0.625 in)

1.8 m (6 ft) and greater

16 mm (0.625 in), plus 3.2 mm (0.125 in) per 0.3 m (one ft) of viewing distance above 1.8 m (6 ft)

Greater than 1.8 m (5.8 ft) to less than or equal to
3.0 m (10 ft)

less than 4.6 m (15 ft)

51 mm (2 in)

4.6 m (15 ft) and greater

51 mm (2 in), plus 3.2 mm (0.125 in) per 0.3 m (12 in) of viewing distance above 4.6 m (15 ft)

greater than 3.0 m (10 ft)

less than 6.4 m (21 ft)

75 mm (3 in)

6.4 m (21 ft) and greater

75 mm (3 in), plus 3.2 mm (0.125 in) per 0.3 m (12 in) of viewing distance above 6.4 m (21 ft)

R409.5.6 Height from Finish Floor or Ground. Visual characters shall be 1.0 m (3.25 ft) minimum above the finish floor or ground. Visual characters indicating elevator car controls shall not be required to comply with R409.5.6.

R409.5.7 Stroke Thickness. Stroke thickness of the uppercase letter "I" shall be 10 percent minimum and 30 percent maximum of the height of the character.

R409.5.8 Character Spacing. Character spacing shall be measured between the two closest points of adjacent characters, excluding word spaces. Spacing between individual characters shall be 10 percent minimum and 35 percent maximum of character height.

R409.5.9 Line Spacing. Spacing between the baselines of separate lines of characters within a message shall be 135 percent minimum and 170 percent maximum of the character height.

R409.5.10 The International Symbol of Accessibility. The International Symbols of Accessibility shall comply with Figure 409.5.10.


Pictogram that shows the simplified profile of a person seated in a wheelchair.

Figure R409.5.10
International Symbol of Accessibility

R410 Bus Stops

R410.1 Bus Boarding and Alighting Areas. Bus boarding and alighting areas shall comply with R410.

Advisory R410.1 Bus Boarding and Alighting Areas. At bus stops where a shelter is provided, the bus stop pad can be located either within or outside of the shelter.

R410.1.1 Surface. Bus stop boarding and alighting areas shall have a firm, stable, and slip resistant surface.

R410.1.2 Dimensions. Bus stop boarding and alighting areas shall provide a clear length of 2.4 m (8.0 ft) minimum, measured perpendicular to the curb or vehicle street or highway edge, and a clear width of 1.5 m (5.0 ft) minimum, measured parallel to the vehicle street or highway.

R410.1.3 Connection. Bus stop boarding and alighting areas shall be connected to streets, sidewalks, or pedestrian paths by a pedestrian access route complying with R301.

R410.1.4 Grade. Parallel to the street or highway, the grade of the bus stop boarding and alighting area shall be the same as the street or highway, to the maximum extent practicable. Perpendicular to the street or highway, the grade of the bus stop boarding and alighting area shall not be steeper than 2 percent.

R410.2 Bus Shelters. Bus shelters shall provide a minimum clear space complying with R402 entirely within the shelter. Bus shelters shall be connected by pedestrian access route complying with R301 to a boarding and alighting area complying with R410.1.

R411 Doors, Doorways, and Gates

R411.1 General. Doors, doorways, and gates that are part of a pedestrian access route shall comply with R411.

Advisory R411.1 General. This section provides information on minimum width and maneuvering space requirements for doors, doorways, and gates. For additional requirements for accessible doors, doorways, and gates, see 36 CFR part 1191 Appendix D Section 404 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines).

R411.2 Manual Doors, Doorways, and Manual Gates. Manual doors and doorways and manual gates intended for user passage shall comply with R411.2.

R411.2.1 Revolving Doors, Gates, and Turnstiles. Revolving doors, revolving gates, and turnstiles shall not be part of a pedestrian access route.

R411.2.2 Double-Leaf Doors and Gates. At least one of the active leaves of doorways with two leaves shall comply with R411.2.3 and R411.2.4.

R411.2.3 Clear Width. Door openings shall provide a clear width of 82 cm (32 in) minimum. Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees. Openings more than 61 cm (24 in) deep shall provide a clear opening of 92 cm (36 in) minimum. There shall be no projections into the required clear opening width lower than 87 cm (34 in) above the finish floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 87 cm (34 in) and 2 m (6.7 ft) above the finish floor or ground shall not exceed 100 mm (4 in).

R411.2.4 Maneuvering Clearances. Minimum maneuvering clearances at doors and gates shall comply with R411.2.4. Maneuvering clearances shall extend the full width of the doorway and the required latch side or hinge side clearance.

R411.2.4.1 Swinging Doors and Gates. Swinging doors and gates shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table R411.2.4.1.

R411.2.4.1 Maneuvering Clearances at Manual Swinging Doors and Gates

Type of Use

Minimum Maneuvering Clearance

Approach Direction

Door or Gate Side

Perpendicular to Doorway

Parallel to Doorway (beyond latch side unless noted)

From front

Pull

153 cm (60 in)

46 cm (18 in)

From front

Push

122 cm (48 in)

0 mm (0 in)1

From hinge side

Pull

153 cm (60 in)

92 cm (36 in)

From hinge side

Pull

137 cm (54 in)

107 cm (42 in)

From hinge side

Push

107 cm (42 in)2

56 cm (22 in)3

From latch side

Pull

122 cm (48 in)4

61 cm (24 in)

From latch side

Push

107 cm (42 in)4

61 cm (24 in)

1. Add 305 cm (12 in) if closer and latch are provided.
2. Add 150 mm (6 in) if closer and latch are provided.
3. Beyond hinge side.
4. Add150 mm (6 in) if closer is provided.


R411.2.4.2 Doorways without Doors or Gates, Sliding Doors, and Folding Doors. Doorways less than 92 cm (36 in) wide without doors or gates, sliding doors, or folding doors shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table R411.2.4.2.

R411.2.4.2 Maneuvering Clearances at Doorways without Doors or Gates, Manual Sliding Doors, and Manual Folding Doors

 

Minimum Maneuvering Clearance

Approach Direction

Perpendicular to Doorway

Parallel to Doorway (beyond stop/latch side unless noted)

From Front

122 cm (48 in)

0 mm (0 in)

From side1

107 cm (42 in)

0 mm (0 in)

From pocket/hinge side

107 cm (42 in)

56 cm (22 in)2

From stop/latch side

107 cm (42 in)

61 cm (24 in)

1. Doorway with no door only.
2. Beyond pocket/hinge side.

R411.2.4.3 Recessed Doors and Gates. Maneuvering clearances for forward approach shall be provided when any obstruction within 46 cm (18 in) of the latch side of a doorway projects more than 205 mm (8 in) beyond the face of the door, measured perpendicular to the face of the door or gate.

Advisory R411.2.4.3 Recessed Doors and Gates. A door can be recessed due to wall thickness or because of the placement of casework and other fixed elements adjacent to the doorway. This provision must be applied wherever doors are recessed.

R411.2.4.4 Floor or Ground Surface. Floor or ground surface within required maneuvering clearances shall comply with R301.5.

R411.2.5 Doors in Series and Gates in Series. The distance between two hinged or pivoted doors in series and gates in series shall be 1.2 m (48 in) minimum plus the width of doors or gates swinging into the space.

R411.2.6 Door and Gate Hardware. Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operable parts on doors and gates shall comply with R405. Operable parts of such hardware shall be 87 cm (34 in) minimum and 122 cm (48 in) maximum above the finish floor or ground. Where sliding doors are in the fully open position, operating hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides.

R412 Passenger Loading Zones

R412.1 General. Passenger loading zones shall comply with R412.

R412.2 Vehicle Pull-Up Space. Passenger loading zones shall provide a vehicular pull-up space 2.4 m (8 ft) wide minimum and 6.1 m (20 ft) long minimum.

R412.3 Access Aisle. Passenger loading zones shall provide access aisles complying with R412 adjacent to the vehicle pull-up space. Access aisles shall adjoin a pedestrian access route and shall not overlap the vehicular way.

R412.3.1 Width. Access aisles serving vehicle pull-up spaces shall be 1.5 m (5.0 ft) wide minimum.

R412.3.2 Length. Access aisles shall extend the full length of the vehicle pull-up spaces they serve.

R412.3.3 Marking. Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

R412.4 Floor and Ground Surfaces. Access aisles serving vehicle pull-up spaces shall comply with R301.5. Access aisles shall be at the same level as the vehicle pull-up space they serve.

R412.5 Vertical Clearance. Vehicle pull-up spaces, access aisles serving them, and a vehicular route to and from the passenger loading zone shall provide a vertical clearance of 3 m (9.5 ft) minimum.

R413 Drinking Fountains

R413.1 General. Drinking fountains shall comply with R401 and R413.

R413.2 Clear Floor Space. Units shall have a clear space complying with R402 positioned for a forward approach and centered on the unit. Knee and toe clearance complying with R403 shall be provided.

R413.3 Operable Parts. Operable parts shall comply with R405.

R413.4 Spout Height. Spout outlets shall be 92 cm (36 in) maximum above the finish floor or ground.

R413.5 Spout Location. The spout shall be located 38 cm (15 in) minimum from the vertical support and 125 mm (5 in) maximum from the front edge of the unit, including bumpers.

R413.6 Water Flow. The spout shall provide a flow of water 100 mm (4 in) high minimum and shall be located 125 mm (5 in) maximum from the front of the unit. The angle of the water stream shall be measured horizontally relative to the front face of the unit. Where spouts are located less than 75 mm (3 in) of the front of the unit, the angle of the water stream shall be 30 degrees maximum. Where spouts are located between 75 mm (3 in) and 125 mm (5 in) maximum from the front of the unit, the angle of the water stream shall be 15 degrees maximum.

Advisory R413.6 Water Flow. The purpose of requiring the drinking fountain spout to produce a flow of water 4 inches (100 mm) high minimum is so that a cup can be inserted under the flow of water to provide a drink of water for an individual who, because of a disability, would otherwise be incapable of using the drinking fountain.

R413.7 Drinking Fountains for Standing Persons. Spout outlets of drinking fountains for standing persons shall be 97 cm (38 in) minimum and 109 cm (43 in) maximum above the finish floor or ground.

R414 Rail Platforms

R414.1 General. Rail platforms shall comply with R414. In light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail systems, platforms shall provide level-entry boarding where structurally and operationally practicable.

R414.2 Slope. Rail platforms shall not exceed a slope of 2 percent in all directions. Where platforms serve vehicles operating on existing track or track laid in existing street or highway, the slope of the platform parallel to the track shall be permitted to be equal to the slope (grade) of the street or highway or existing track.

R414.3 Detectable Warnings. Platform boarding edges not protected by platform screens or guards shall have detectable warnings complying with R304 along the full length of the public use area of the platform.

R414.4 Platform and Vehicle Floor Coordination. Station platforms shall be positioned to coordinate with vehicles in accordance with the applicable requirements of 36 CFR part 1192 (ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles). Low-level platforms shall be 205 mm (8 in) minimum above top of rail. Where vehicles are boarded from sidewalks or street-level, low-level platforms shall be permitted to be less than 205 mm (8 in).

Advisory R414.4 Platform and Vehicle Floor Coordination. The height and position of a platform must be coordinated with the floor of the vehicles it serves to minimize the vertical and horizontal gaps, in accordance with the ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles (36 CFR part 1192). The vehicle guidelines, divided by bus, van, light rail, rapid rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, are available at www.access-board.gov/transit/html/vguide.htm. The preferred alignment is a high platform, level with the vehicle floor. In some cases, the vehicle guidelines permit use of a low platform in conjunction with a lift or ramp. Most such low platforms must have a minimum height of eight inches above the top of the rail. Some vehicles are designed to be boarded from a street or the sidewalk along the street. The exception permits those boarding areas to be less than eight inches high.

R415 Rail Station Signs

R415.1 General. Rail station signs shall comply with R415.

Advisory R415.1 General. Emerging technologies such as audible sign systems using infrared transmitters and receivers may provide greater accessibility in the transit environment than traditional braille and raised letter signs. The transmitters are placed on or next to print signs and transmit their information to an infrared receiver that is held by a person. By scanning an area, the person will hear the sign. This means that signs can be placed well out of reach of pedestrians, even on parapet walls and on walls beyond barriers. Additionally, such signs can be used to provide wayfinding information that cannot be efficiently conveyed on braille signs.

R415.2 Entrances. Where signs identify a station or its entrance, at least one sign at each entrance shall comply with R409.2 and shall be placed in uniform locations to the maximum extent practicable. Where signs identify a station that has no defined entrance, at least one sign shall comply with R409.2 and shall be placed in a central location. Tactile signs shall not be required where audible signs are remotely transmitted to hand-held receivers, or are user- or proximity-actuated.

R415.3 Routes and Destinations. Lists of stations, routes and destinations served by the station which are located on boarding areas, platforms, or mezzanines shall comply with R409.5. Signs covered by this requirement shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be placed in uniform locations within the system. Where sign space is limited, characters shall not be required to exceed 75 mm (3 in). At least one tactile sign identifying the specific station and complying with R409.2 shall be provided on each platform or boarding area. Tactile signs shall not be required where audible signs are remotely transmitted to hand-held receivers, or are user- or proximity-actuated. Route maps are not required to comply.

R415.4 Station Names. Stations covered by this section shall have identification signs complying with R409.5. Signs shall be clearly visible and within the sight lines of standing and sitting passengers from within the vehicle on both sides when not obstructed by another vehicle.