Chapter 3

CHAPTER R3: TECHNICAL PROVISIONS

R301 Pedestrian Access Route

R301.1 General. Pedestrian access routes shall comply with R301 and shall connect pedestrian elements and facilities required to be accessible.

R301.2 Components. Pedestrian access routes shall consist of one or more of the following components: walkways, ramps, curb ramps (excluding flared sides) and landings, blended transitions, crosswalks, and pedestrian overpasses and underpasses, elevators, and platform lifts. Stairways and escalators shall not be part of a pedestrian access route. All components of a pedestrian access route shall comply with the applicable portions of this document.

R301.3 Width

R301.3.1 Continuous Width. The minimum continuous and unobstructed clear width of a pedestrian access route shall be 1.2 m (4.0 ft), exclusive of the width of the curb.

Advisory R301.3.1 Continuous Width. The pedestrian access route provides a minimum accessible route of passage within a sidewalk or other walkway that may not comprise the full width of the pedestrian circulation route, particularly in urban areas. Industry-recommended sidewalk widths can be found in ‘Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities’, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, July 2004 (www.aashto.org). The minimum width must be maintained without obstruction.

Where a pedestrian access route turns or changes direction, it should accommodate the continuous passage of a wheelchair or scooter. As with street or highway design for vehicles, additional maneuvering width or length may be needed at recesses and alcoves, doorways and entrances, and along curved or angled routings, particularly where the grade exceeds 5%. Individual segments of pedestrian access routes should have a minimum straight length of 1.2 m (4.0 ft).

Street furniture, including fixed or movable elements such as newspaper and sales racks, cafe seating and tables, bus shelters, vender carts, sidewalk sculptures, and bicycle racks, shall not reduce the required width of the pedestrian access route.

Provisions for protruding objects apply across the entire width of the pedestrian circulation path, not just the pedestrian access route.

R301.3.2 Width at Passing Spaces. Walkways in pedestrian access routes that are less than 1.5 m (5.0 ft) in clear width shall provide passing spaces at intervals of 61 m (200 ft) maximum. Pedestrian access routes at passing spaces shall be 1.5 m (5.0 ft) wide for a distance of 1.5m (5.0 ft).

R301.3.3 Width at Elevators and Lifts. The pedestrian access route at elevators and platform lifts shall be permitted to comply with the applicable requirements of section 407, 408, and 410 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines).

R301.3.4 Width at Doors, Doorways, and Gates. The pedestrian access route through doors, doorways, and gates shall be permitted to comply with R411.2.3.

R301.4 Walkway Grade and Cross Slope

R301.4.1 Cross Slope. The cross slope of the walkway of a pedestrian access route shall be 2 percent maximum.

R301.4.2 Street or Highway Grade. Where the walkway of a pedestrian access route is contained within a street or highway border, its grade shall not exceed the general grade established for the adjacent street or highway.

R301.4.3 Supported Slope. Where the walkway of a pedestrian access route is supported by a structure, it shall comply with R305.5.

Advisory R301.4.3 Supported Slope. This provision covers pedestrian access routes on bridges, overpasses, underpasses and similar facilities.

R301.5 Surface. The surface of the pedestrian access route shall be firm, stable and slip resistant.

Advisory R301.5 Surface. The U.S. Department of Justice ADA regulations require that the usability of accessible features be maintained (28 CFR §35.133 and §36.211).

R301.5.1 Vertical Alignment. Vertical alignment shall be planar within curb ramp runs, blended transitions, landings, and gutter areas within the pedestrian access route, and within clear spaces required for accessible pedestrian signals, street furniture, and operable parts. Grade breaks shall be flush. Where the pedestrian access route crosses rail tracks at grade, the surface of the pedestrian access route shall be level and flush with the top of the rail at the outer edges of the rail. The surface between the rails shall be aligned with the top of the rail.

R301.5.2 Surface Discontinuities. Surface discontinuities shall not exceed 13 mm (0.50 in) maximum. Vertical discontinuities between 6.4 mm (0.25 in) and 13 mm (0.5 in) maximum shall be beveled at 1:2 minimum. The bevel shall be applied across the entire level change.

Advisory R301.5.2 Surface Discontinuities. Surfaces with individual units laid out of plane and those that are heavily textured, rough, or chamfered, will greatly increase rolling resistance and will subject pedestrians who use wheelchairs, scooters, and rolling walkers to the stressful (and often painful) effects of vibration. It is highly desirable to minimize surface discontinuities; when discontinuities on the pedestrian access route are unavoidable, they should be widely separated.

R301.7 Horizontal Openings

R301.7.1 Walkway Joints and Gratings. Openings shall not permit passage of a sphere more than 13 mm (0.5 in) in diameter. Elongated openings shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel.

R301.7.2 Clearances at Elevator and Platform Lift Sills. Clearances between elevator car platform sills and associated hoistways and between a platform lift sill and any landing shall comply with the applicable requirements in sections 407.4.3, 408.4.3, and 410.4 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines).

R301.7.3 Flangeway Gaps at Non-Freight Rail Crossings. Openings for wheel flanges at pedestrian crossings of non-freight rail track shall be 64 mm (2.5 in) maximum.

R301.7.4 Flangeway Gaps at Freight Rail Crossings. Openings for wheel flanges at pedestrian crossings of freight rail track shall be 75 mm (3 in) maximum.

R302 Alternate Circulation Path

R302.1 General. Alternate circulation paths shall comply with R302 and shall contain a pedestrian access route complying with R301.

Advisory R302.1 General. Temporary routes are alterations to an existing developed pedestrian environment and are required to achieve the maximum accessibility feasible under existing conditions.

R302.2 Location. To the maximum extent feasible, the alternate circulation path shall be provided on the same side of the street as the disrupted route.

Advisory R302.2 Location. Where it is not feasible to provide a same-side alternate circulation path and pedestrians will be detoured, section 6D.02 of the MUTCD specifies that the alternate path provide a similar level of accessibility to that of the existing disrupted route. This may include the incorporation of accessible pedestrian signals (APS), curb ramps, or other accessibility features.

R302.3 Protection. Where the alternate circulation path is exposed to adjacent construction, excavation drop-offs, traffic, or other hazards, it shall be protected with a pedestrian barricade or channelizing device complying with R302.4.

Advisory R302.3 Protection. When it is necessary to block travel at the departure curb to close a crosswalk that is disrupted by excavation, construction, or construction activity, care must be taken to preserve curb ramp access to the perpendicular crosswalk. This may require additional pedestrian channelization if only a single diagonal curb ramp serves the corner.

Figures 6H-28 and 6H-29 of the MUTCD specify notification signage for pedestrian closings and detours. Audible signage triggered by proximity switches can provide information to pedestrians who do not use print signs.

R302.4 Pedestrian Barricades and Channelizing Devices. Pedestrian barricades and channelizing devices shall be continuous, stable, and non-flexible and shall consist of a wall, fence, or enclosures specified in section 6F-58, 6F-63, and 6F-66 of the MUTCD (incorporated by reference; see R104.2.4).

R302.4.1 Detectable Base. A continuous bottom edge shall be provided 150 mm (6 in) maximum above the ground or walkway surface.

R302.4.2 Height. Devices shall provide a continuous surface or upper rail at 0.9 m (3.0 ft) minimum above the ground or walkway surface. Support members shall not protrude into the alternate circulation path.

R303 Curb Ramps and Blended Transitions

R303.1 General. Curb ramps and blended transitions shall comply with R303.

Advisory R303.1 General. Curb ramps can be a key source of wayfinding information for pedestrians who travel without vision cues if they are installed in-line with the direction of pedestrian travel at crossings. This is most easily accomplished by locating the ramp at the tangent point of the curb return, using either a small curb radius in an attached sidewalk or, in larger radii, a border or setback from the street edge. The Institute of Transportation Engineers (www.ite.org) has undertaken an industry-wide effort to develop and standardize intersection plans that optimize wayfinding. The challenge for practitioners is to provide usability for pedestrians in wheelchairs and scooters with a rectangular ramp plan that can also be directional.

R303.2 Types. Perpendicular curb ramps shall comply with R303.2.1 and R303.3; parallel curb ramps shall comply with R303.2.2 and R303.3; blended transitions shall comply with R303.2.3 and R303.3.

Advisory R303.2 Types. This provision permits a combination of ramps and blended transitions.

It will sometimes be necessary to limit the run of a parallel or perpendicular ramp in order to avoid ‘chasing grade’ indefinitely. In new construction at standard curb heights, required level landings can provide a datum for measuring most curb ramp slopes.

Limiting new ramps to an 8.3% slope on steep routes will result in a slight increase in grade on the balance of the route, but will facilitate street crossing and a timely and manageable ascent to the sidewalk, particularly important when crossing in traffic.

R303.2.1 Perpendicular Curb Ramps. Perpendicular curb ramps shall have a running slope that cuts through or is built up to the curb at right angles or meets the gutter grade break at right angles.

R303.2.1.1 Running Slope. The running slope shall be 5 percent minimum and 8.3 percent maximum but shall not require the ramp length to exceed 4.5 m (15.0 ft).

R303.2.1.2 Cross Slope. The cross slope at intersections shall be 2 percent maximum. The cross slope at midblock crossings shall be permitted to be warped to meet street or highway grade.

R303.2.1.3 Landing. A landing 1.2 m (4.0 ft) minimum by 1.2 m (4.0 ft) minimum shall be provided at the top of the curb ramp and shall be permitted to overlap other landings and clear space. Running and cross slopes at intersections shall be 2 percent maximum. Running and cross slope at midblock crossings shall be permitted to be warped to meet street or highway grade.

R303.2.1.4 Flares. Flared sides with a slope of 10 percent maximum, measured parallel to the curb line, shall be provided where a pedestrian circulation path crosses the curb ramp.

Advisory R303.2.1.4 Flares. Sides of ramps may be returned, providing useful directional cues, if protected from cross travel by landscaping, street furniture, poles, or equipment.

R303.2.2 Parallel Curb Ramps. Parallel curb ramps shall comply with R303.2.2, and shall have a running slope that is in-line with the direction of sidewalk travel.

R303.2.2.1 Running Slope. The running slope shall be 5 percent minimum and 8.3 percent maximum but shall not require the ramp length to exceed 4.5 m (15.0 ft).

R303.2.2.2 Cross Slope. The cross slope shall be 2 percent maximum.

R303.2.2.3 Landing. A landing 1.2 m (4.0 ft) minimum by 1.2 m (4.0 ft) minimum shall be provided at the bottom of the ramp run and shall be permitted to overlap other landings and clear floor or ground space. Running slope and cross slopes at intersections shall be 2 percent maximum. Running and cross slope at midblock crossings shall be permitted to be warped to meet street or highway grade.

R303.2.2.4 Diverging Sidewalks. Where a parallel curb ramp does not occupy the entire width of a sidewalk, drop-offs at diverging segments shall be protected.

R303.2.3 Blended Transitions. Blended transitions shall comply with R303.3. Running slope shall be 5 percent maximum and cross slope shall be 2 percent maximum.

R303.3 Common Elements. Curb ramps and blended transitions shall comply with R303.3.

R303.3.1 Width. The clear width of landings, blended transitions, and curb ramps, excluding flares, shall be 1.2 m (4.0 ft) minimum.

R303.3.2 Detectable Warnings. Detectable warning surfaces complying with R304 shall be provided, where a curb ramp, landing, or blended transition connects to a street.

R303.3.3 Surfaces. Surfaces of curb ramps, blended transitions, and landings shall comply with R301. Gratings, access covers, and other appurtenances shall not be located on curb ramps, landings, blended transitions, and gutters within the pedestrian access route.

R303.3.4 Grade Breaks. Grade breaks at the top and bottom of perpendicular curb ramps shall be perpendicular to the direction of ramp run. At least one end of the bottom grade break shall be at the back of curb. Grade breaks shall not be permitted on the surface of curb ramps, blended transitions, landings, and gutter areas within the pedestrian access route. Surface slopes that meet at grade breaks shall be flush.

R303.3.5 Counter Slopes. The counter slope of the gutter or street at the foot of a curb ramp, landing, or blended transition shall be 5 percent maximum.

R303.3.6 Clear Space. Beyond the curb face, a clear space of 1.2 m (4.0 ft) minimum by 1.2 m (4.0 ft) minimum shall be provided within the width of the crosswalk and wholly outside the parallel vehicle travel lane.

R304 Detectable Warning Surfaces

R304.1 General. Detectable warnings shall consist of a surface of truncated domes aligned in a square or radial grid pattern and shall comply with R304.

R304.1.1 Dome Size. Truncated domes in a detectable warning surface shall have a base diameter of 23 mm (0.9 in) minimum to 36 mm (1.4 in) maximum, a top diameter of 50 percent of the base diameter minimum to 65 percent of the base diameter maximum, and a height of 5 mm (0.2 in).

Advisory R304.1.1 Dome Size. Where domes are arrayed radially, they may differ in diameter within the ranges specified.

R304.1.2 Dome Spacing. Truncated domes in a detectable warning surface shall have a center-to-center spacing of 41 mm (1.6 in) minimum and 61 mm (2.4 in) maximum, and a base-to-base spacing of 17 mm (0.65 in) minimum, measured between the most adjacent domes.

Advisory R304.1.2 Dome Spacing. Where domes are arrayed radially, they may differ in center-to-center spacing within the range specified.

R304.1.3 Contrast. Detectable warning surfaces shall contrast visually with adjacent gutter, street or highway, or walkway surfaces, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light.

Advisory R304.1.3 Contrast. Contrast may be provided on the full ramp surface but should not extend to the flared sides. Many pedestrians use the visual contrast at the toe of the ramp to locate the curb ramp opening from the other side of the street.

R304.1.4 Size. Detectable warning surfaces shall extend 610 mm (24 in) minimum in the direction of travel and the full width of the curb ramp (exclusive of flares), the landing, or the blended transition.

R304.2 Location and Alignment

R304.2.1 Perpendicular Curb Ramps. Where both ends of the bottom grade break complying with R303.3.4 are 1.5 m (5.0 ft) or less from the back of curb, the detectable warning shall be located on the ramp surface at the bottom grade break. Where either end of the bottom grade break is more than 1.5 m (5.0 ft) from the back of curb, the detectable warning shall be located on the lower landing.

Advisory R304.2.1 Perpendicular Curb Ramps. Detectable warnings are intended to provide a tactile equivalent underfoot of the visible curbline; those placed too far from the street edge because of a large curb radius may compromise effective crossing analysis.

R304.2.2 Landings and Blended Transitions. The detectable warning shall be located on the landing or blended transition at the back of curb.

R304.2.3 Alignment. The rows of truncated domes in a detectable warning surface shall be aligned to be perpendicular or radial to the grade break between the ramp, landing, or blended transition and the street.

Advisory R304.2.3 Alignment. Where a ramp, landing, or blended transition provides access to the street continuously around a corner, the vertical rows of truncated domes in a detectable warning surface should be aligned to be perpendicular or radial to the grade break between the ramp and the street for a 1.2 meter-wide (4.0 ft) width for each crosswalk served.

R304.2.3 Rail Crossings. The detectable warning surface shall be located so that the edge nearest the rail crossing is 1.8 m (6 ft) minimum and 4.6 m (15 ft) maximum from the centerline of the nearest rail. The rows of truncated domes in a detectable warning surface shall be aligned to be parallel with the direction of wheelchair travel.

R305 Pedestrian Crossings

R305.1 General. Pedestrian crossings shall comply with R305.

R305.2 Crosswalks. Crosswalks shall comply with R305.2 and shall contain a pedestrian access route that connects to departure and arrival walkways through any median or pedestrian refuge island.

R305.2.1 Width. Marked crosswalks shall be 1.8 m (6 ft) wide minimum.

R305.2.2 Cross Slope

R305.2.2.1 Crossings with Stop Control. The cross slope shall be 2 percent maximum.

R305.2.2.2 Crossings without Stop Control. The cross slope shall be 5 percent maximum.

R305. 2.2.3 Midblock Crossings. The cross slope at midblock crossings shall be permitted to be warped to meet street or highway grade.

R305.2.3 Running Slope. The running slope shall be 5 percent maximum, measured parallel to the direction of pedestrian travel in the crosswalk.

R305.3 Pedestrian Signal Phase Timing. All pedestrian signal phase timing shall be calculated using a pedestrian walk speed of 1.1 m/s (3.5 ft/s) maximum. The crosswalk distance used in calculating pedestrian signal phase timing shall include the entire length of the crosswalk.

R305.4 Medians and Pedestrian Refuge Islands. Medians and pedestrian refuge islands in crosswalks shall comply with R305.4 and shall contain a pedestrian access route, including passing space, complying with R301 and connecting to each crosswalk.

R305.4.1 Length. Medians and pedestrian refuge islands shall be 1.8 m (6.0 ft) minimum in length in the direction of pedestrian travel.

Advisory R305.4.1 Length. The edges of cut-throughs and curb ramps are useful as cues to the direction of a crossing. This should be considered when planning an angled route through a median or island. Curb ramps in medians and islands can add difficulty to the crossing for some users. There are many factors to consider when deciding whether to ramp or cut-through a median or island. Those factors may include slope and cross slope of road, drainage, and width of median or island.

R305.4.2 Detectable Warnings. Medians and pedestrian refuge islands shall have detectable warnings complying with R304 at curb ramps and blended transitions. Detectable warnings at cut-through islands shall be located at the curbline in-line with the face of curb and shall be separated by a 61 cm (2.0 ft) minimum length of walkway without detectable warnings. Where the island has no curb, the detectable warning shall be located at the edge of roadway.

R305.5 Pedestrian Overpasses and Underpasses. Pedestrian overpasses and underpasses shall comply with R305.5.

R305.5.1 Pedestrian Access Route. Pedestrian overpasses and underpasses shall contain a pedestrian access route complying with R301.

R305.5.2 Approach. Where the approach slope exceeds 5 percent, the approach shall be a ramp 1.2 m (4.0 ft) minimum in width complying with R406 or an elevator, a limited use/limited application elevator, or platform lift complying with the applicable requirements in section 407, 408, and 410 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines) and providing for independent operation.

Advisory R305.5.2 Approach. This provision leaves the decision of type of accessible vertical access up to the jurisdiction. Long ramps can present difficulties for some persons with disabilities and may require snow clearance. Elevators or lifts entail a maintenance obligation.

R305.5.3 Stairs. Stairs shall comply with R407.

R305.5.4 Escalators. Escalators shall comply with sections 6.1.3.5.6 and 6.1.3.6.5 of ASME A17.1 (incorporated by reference; see R104.2.3) and shall have a clear width of 82 cm (32 in) minimum.

R305.6 Roundabout Intersections. Where pedestrian facilities are provided at roundabout intersections, they shall comply with R305.6 and shall contain a pedestrian access route complying with R301.

R305.6.1 Separation. If walkways are curb-attached, there shall be a continuous and detectable edge treatment along the street side of the walkway wherever pedestrian crossing is not intended. Where chains, fencing, or railings are used, they shall have a bottom element 38 cm (15 in) maximum above the pedestrian access route.

Advisory R305.6.1 Separation. Because the pedestrian crossings are located off to the side of the pedestrian route around the street or highway and noise from continuously circulating traffic may mask useful audible cues. Carefully delineated crosswalk approaches with plantings, low enclosures, curbs, or other defined edges can be effective in identifying the crossing location(s). European and Australian roundabout intersections extend a 6- cm (24-inch) width of tactile surface treatment from the centerline of the ramp or blended transition across the full width of the sidewalk to provide an underfoot cue. Several manufacturers make a surface of raised bars for this use. The detectable warning surface should not be used, since it indicates the edge of a street or highway.

Schemes that remove cyclists from the circulating street or highway by means of a ramp that angles from the curb lane to the sidewalk and then provide re-entry by means of a similar ramp beyond the pedestrian crossing may provide false cues about the location of a crossing to pedestrians who are using the edge of the sidewalk for wayfinding. Designers should consider ways to mitigate this hazard.

R305.6.2 Signals. At roundabouts with multi-lane crossings, a pedestrian activated signal complying with R306 shall be provided for each segment of each crosswalk, including the splitter island. Signals shall clearly identify which crosswalk segment the signal serves.

Advisory R305.6.2 Signals. There are many suitable demand signals for this application. Crossings at some roundabout intersections in Australia and the United Kingdom incorporate such systems, in which the driver first sees a flashing amber signal upon pedestrian activation and then a solid red while the pedestrian crosses to the splitter island (there is no green). These types of signals are also used in some U.S. cities at pedestrian crossings of arterial street or highways. The pedestrian pushbutton should be identifiable by a locator tone, and an accessible pedestrian signal incorporated to provide audible and vibrotactile notice of the gap created by the red signal. If properly signed, it need only be used occasionally by those who do not wish to rely solely on visual gap selection.

Roundabout intersections with single-lane approach and exit legs are not required to provide signals.

R305.7 Channelized Turn Lanes at Intersections. Where pedestrian crosswalks are provided at multi-lane right or left channelized turn lanes at intersections with pedestrian signal indications, a pedestrian activated signal complying with R306 shall be provided.

Advisory R305.7 Channelized Turn Lanes at Intersections. Accessible pedestrian signal devices installed at splitter and ‘pork chop’ islands must be carefully located and separated so that signal spillover does not give conflicting information about which crossing has the WALK indication displayed.

Additional guidance on signal types is provided in Advisory R305.6.2.

R306 Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS)

R306.1 General. Pedestrian signals shall comply with R306.

R306.2 Pedestrian Signals. Each crosswalk with pedestrian signal indication shall have an accessible pedestrian signal which includes audible and vibrotactile indications of the WALK interval. Where a pedestrian pushbutton is provided, it shall be integrated into the accessible pedestrian signal and shall comply with R306.2.

Advisory R306.2 Pedestrian Signals. Signals should generally sound and vibrate throughout the WALK interval. Where signals rest in WALK, audible operation may be limited to a repetition at short intervals rather than continuous sounding for several minutes.

R306.2.1 Location. Accessible pedestrian signals shall be located so that the vibrotactile feature can be contacted from the level landing serving a curb ramp, if provided, or from a clear floor or ground space that is in line with the crosswalk line adjacent to the vehicle stop line.

R306.2.1.1 Crossings. Accessible pedestrian signal devices shall be 3.0 m (10.0 ft) minimum from other accessible pedestrian signals at a crossing. The control face of the accessible pedestrian signal shall be installed to face the intersection and be parallel to the direction of the crosswalk it serves.

R306.2.1.2 Medians and Islands. Accessible pedestrian signals located in medians and islands shall be 1.5 m (5.0 ft) minimum from other accessible pedestrian signals.

R306.2.2 Reach and Clear Floor or Ground Space. Accessible pedestrian pushbuttons shall be located within a reach range complying with R404. A clear floor or ground space complying with R402 shall be provided at the pushbutton and shall connect to or overlap the pedestrian access route.

R306.2.3 Audible Walk Indication. The audible indication of the WALK interval shall be by tone or speech message.

R306.2.3.1 Tones. Tones shall consist of multiple frequencies with a dominant component at 880 Hz. The duration of the tone shall be 0.15 s and shall repeat at intervals of 0.15 s.

Advisory R306.2.3.1 Tones. Many new accessible pedestrian signal installations in the US use speech messages, which are perceived as being more user-friendly than tones. However, such messages may not be intelligible under high-ambient-noise conditions or to non-English speakers. Electronic tones are more universal and unambiguous. Section 4E.06 of the MUTCD specifies content of speech messages.

R306.2.3.2 Volume. Tone or voice volume measured at 92 cm (3.0 ft) from the pedestrian signal device shall be 2 dB minimum and 5 dB maximum above ambient noise level in standard operation and shall be responsive to ambient noise level changes.

Advisory R306.2.3.2 Volume. Where additional volume or beaconing features are available on pedestrian activation, they will momentarily exceed volume limits.

R306.3 Pedestrian Pushbuttons. Pedestrian pushbuttons shall comply with R306.3.

R306.3.1 Operation. Pedestrian pushbuttons shall comply with R405.4.

R306.3.2 Pushbutton Locator Tone. Pedestrian pushbuttons shall incorporate a locator tone at the pushbutton. Pushbutton locator tone volume measured at 92 cm (3.0 ft) from the pushbutton shall be 2 dB minimum and 5 dB maximum above ambient noise level and shall be responsive to ambient noise level changes. The duration of the locator tone shall be 0.15 s maximum and shall repeat at intervals of one second. The locator tone shall operate during the DON'T WALK and flashing DON'T WALK intervals only and shall be deactivated when the pedestrian signal is not operative.

R306.3.3 Size and Contrast. Pedestrian pushbuttons shall be a minimum of 0.5 cm (2 in) across in one dimension and shall contrast visually with their housing or mounting.

R306.3.4 Optional Features. An extended button press shall be permitted to activate additional features. Buttons that provide additional features shall be marked with three braille dots forming an equilateral triangle in the center of the pushbutton.

R306.4 Directional Information and Signs. Pedestrian signal devices shall provide tactile and visual signs complying with 306.4 on the face of the device or its housing or mounting to indicate crosswalk direction and the name of the street containing the crosswalk served by the pedestrian signal.

R306.4.1 Arrow. Signs shall include a tactile arrow aligned parallel to the crosswalk direction. The arrow shall be raised 0.8 mm (.03 inch) minimum and shall be 4 mm (1.5 in) minimum in length. The arrowhead shall be open at 45 degrees to the shaft and shall be 33 percent of the length of the shaft. Stroke width shall be 10 percent minimum and 15 percent maximum of arrow length. The arrow shall contrast with the background.

R306.4.2 Street Name. Accessible pedestrian signals (APS) shall include street name information aligned parallel to the crosswalk direction and shall comply with R409.3 or shall provide street name information in audible format.

R306.4.3 Crosswalk Configuration. Where provided, graphic indication of crosswalk configuration shall be tactile.

R307 Street Furniture

R307.1 General. Street furniture shall comply with R307.

Advisory R307.1 General. Elements are often placed on a sidewalk without coordination by different agencies or entities. Covered entities must ensure that the usability of the pedestrian access route is maintained.

Where items are added to an existing developed streetscape and the pedestrian walkway is not being replaced or altered within the scope of the project, locations should be carefully selected for minimum slope and cross slope and adequate width and maneuvering space to optimize usability.

R307.2 Clear Floor or Ground Space. Street furniture shall have clear space complying with R402 and shall be connected to the pedestrian access route.

R307.3 Drinking Fountains. Where drinking fountains are provided, they shall comply with R413.

R307.4 Public Telephones. Where public telephones are provided, they shall comply with R307.4.

R307.4.1 Single Telephone. Where a single public telephone is provided, it shall comply with sections 704.2 and 704.4 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines).

R307.4.2 Multiple Telephones. Where a bank of public telephones is provided, at least one telephone shall comply with section 704.2 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191, and at least one additional telephone shall comply with section 704.4 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines).

R307.4.3 Volume Controls. All public telephones shall provide volume controls complying with section 704.3 of Appendix D to 36 CFR 1191.

R307.5 Public Toilet Facilities. Permanent or portable public toilet facilities shall comply with section 603 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191. At least one fixture of each type provided shall comply with sections 604 through 610 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines). Operable parts, dispensers, receptacles, or other equipment shall comply with R405. Where multiple single-user toilet facilities are clustered at a single location, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one single-user toilet at each cluster shall comply with section 603 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 and shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with R409.7.2.1.

R307.6 Tables, Counters, and Benches. Tables, counters, and benches shall comply with R307.6.

R307.6.1 Tables. Where tables are provided in a single location, at least 5 percent but no fewer than one, shall comply with section 902 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines).

R307.6.2 Counters. Where provided, counters shall comply with section 904 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines).

R307.6.3 Benches.

R307.6.3.1 Clear Space for Wheelchairs at Benches. Where benches without tables are provided at a single location, at least 50 percent, but no fewer than one, shall provide clear space complying with R402 positioned at the end of the bench seat and located for shoulder-to-shoulder seating.

R307.6.3.2 Benches. Where benches without tables are provided at a single location, at least 50 percent, but no fewer than one, shall have a seat height at the front edge of 43 cm (17 in) minimum and 49 cm (19 in) maximum above the ground or floor space.

Advisory R307.6.3.2 Benches. Benches will be most useful if they have full back support and armrests to assist in sitting and standing.

R308 On-Street Parking

R308.1 General. On-street parking spaces shall comply with R308.

R308.2 Parallel Parking Spaces.

R308.2.1 Wide Walkways. Where the width of the adjacent walkway exceeds 4.3 m (14 ft), an access aisle at least 1.5 m (5.0 ft) wide shall be provided at street level the full length of the parking space and shall connect to a pedestrian access route serving the space. The access aisle shall not encroach on the vehicular travel lane.

Advisory R308.2.1 Wide Walkways. The walkway adjacent to an accessible parallel parking space should be free of obstructions such as signage, plantings, or equipment that would preclude deployment of a vehicle side-lift onto the access aisle or walkway.

A vehicle may park at the curb or at the parking lane boundary in order to locate the access aisle for individual use.

R308.2.2 Narrow Walkways. An access aisle is not required where the width of the adjacent walkway is less than or equal to 4.3 m (14 ft). When an access aisle is not provided, the parking space shall be located at either end of the block face.

Advisory R308.2.2 Narrow Walkways. An end-of-block space can be served by the curb ramps at the street crossing.

R308.3 Perpendicular or Angled Parking Spaces. Where perpendicular or angled parking is provided, an access aisle 2.4 m (8.0 ft) wide minimum shall be provided at street level the full length of the parking space and shall connect to a pedestrian access route serving the space. Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

Advisory R308.3 Perpendicular or Angled Parking Spaces. All accessible angled and perpendicular on-street parking is treated as van parking with wide access aisles. In many cases, two spaces on either side of a single access aisle will satisfy scoping requirements. Where backing into the space (to locate the access aisle on the side needed) is not permitted, an access aisle for each accessible space should be provided.

R308.4 Curb Ramps or Blended Transitions. A curb ramp or blended transition complying with R303 shall connect the access aisle to the pedestrian access route.

R308.5 Signs. Parking space identification signs shall include the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with R409.5.10. Signs shall be located at the head or foot of the parking space so as not to interfere with the operation of a side lift or a passenger side transfer.

Advisory R308.5 Signs. Accessible parallel parking spaces located at the foot of a block can serve vans that have rear lifts or cars with scooter platforms.

R308.6 Parking Meters. Where parking meters are provided, they shall comply with R308.6. Operable parts shall comply with R405.

R308.6.1 Meters at Parking Spaces. A parking meter shall be located at the head or foot of a parallel parking space so as not to interfere with the operation of a side lift or a passenger side transfer.

R308.6.2 Remote Meters. Where payment for parking in a space is included in a centralized collection box or paying station, the space shall be connected to the centralized collection point with a pedestrian access route.

R308.6.3 Displays and Information. Displays and information shall be visible from a point located 1.0 m (3.3 ft) maximum above the center of the clear floor space in front of the meter.

R309 Call Boxes

R309.1 General. Call boxes shall comply with R309. Where provided, labeling shall comply with R409.2 and R409.3.

Advisory R309.1 General. These provisions may be helpful in making other types of emergency communication devices accessible such as on street security phone systems.

R309.2 Operable Parts.

R309.2.1 Electronic Operation. Operable parts shall comply with R405.

R309.2.2 Mechanical Operation. Operable parts shall comply with R404 and R405.2. Mechanically operated systems in which the signal is initiated by a lever pull shall be permitted to have an activating force of 53.4 N (12 lbs) maximum.

R309.3 Edge Protection. Edge protection complying with R406.8 shall be provided where the use area at the call box is adjacent to an abrupt level change.

R309.4 Motor Vehicle Turnouts. Where provided, a motor vehicle turnout shall have a minimum paved area of 4.9 m (16 ft) wide minimum and 7.0 m (23 ft) long minimum and shall connect to the clear space at the call box with a pedestrian access route complying with R301. Where shoulder texturing is used, it shall be discontinued at the turnout.

R309.5 Two-Way Communication. Where provided, two-way voice communication shall comply with R309.5, and with sections 708.2 and 708.3 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines).

R309.5.1 Volume Controls. Volume controls complying with section 704.3 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines) shall be provided.

R309.5.2 TTY. A TTY complying with section 704.4 of Appendix D to 36 CFR part 1191 (the ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines) shall be provided.