X02.6 Vehicular Ways and Facilities

X02.6.1 On-street parking.

X02.6.1.1 Minimum number required.

(A) Accessible spaces. Where on-street public convenience parking is provided in commercial districts and at civic facilities, accessible on-street parking spaces shall be included in the total provided in the project or project area in accordance with proposed ADAAG Section 208.2 and shall be dispersed within the project area.

Discussion: The committee deferred consideration of scoping for the provision of accessible parking in residential neighborhoods, where on-street parking may be permitted but not designated. Accessible parking spaces for individual residents may be designated as reserved upon request to the appropriate jurisdiction in order to ensure that convenient accessible curbside parking is available.

(B) Van accessible spaces. Where perpendicular or angled parking is provided, one in every eight accessible parking spaces within the project area, but not less than one, shall be a van parking space with an access aisle that is not less than 96 inches (2440 mm) wide.

Discussion: A vast amount of public parking in urban areas is located along public streets and within the public right-of-way. A portion of this parking needs to be accessible. For consistency, the committee agreed to use the same ratios as are already in use for parking lots.

X02.6.1.2 Location. Accessible spaces and van accessible spaces shall be dispersed within the project area and shall be provided at locations with minimum street and sidewalk slope to the extent this is consistent with reasonable dispersion within the area.

EXCEPTIONS:
1. Accessible on-street spaces shall be permitted to be clustered if equivalent or greater access is provided, with respect to distance from an accessible entrance, user cost, and convenience.

2. Accessible on-street parking shall be permitted to be combined with off-street parking under the same jurisdiction serving the same project area if equal or greater access is provided in terms of distance from an accessible entrance, user cost, and convenience.

Advisory: The placement of accessible on-street parking spaces should take into account the type and composition of buildings and facilities located within the project area that is served by the on-street parking. Typically, no single site is served and therefore, parking should be dispersed throughout the project area. When accessible parking is dispersed within the project area, the spaces should be located in close proximity to the entrances of buildings or facilities located within the project area. In select circumstances, a project area may contain only one or two buildings within a project area (example: a municipal library that encompasses an entire city block, with only one public entrance), in which case the accessible parking spaces are permitted to be clustered together at the single entrance in order to provide equal or greater access. Also, if off-street parking is provided serving the same project area (example: a municipal park has both on-street parking as well as a lot serving the park), the total number of accessible parking spaces may be provided in the lot in lieu of the on-street parking spaces in order to provide equal or greater access to the park.

X02.6.1.3 Minimum width and length. Accessible spaces shall not be smaller in width or length than that specified by the local jurisdictions for other spaces and in no case less than 8 feet (2449 mm) wide and 18 feet (5490 mm) long.

X02.6.1.4 Parallel parking spaces. Where accessible parallel parking is provided, a parallel access aisle at least 60 inches (1525 mm) wide shall be provided at street level the full length of the accessible parking space. The parallel access aisle shall connect at the head or foot of the parking space to a 60-inch wide minimum perpendicular access aisle that shall extend the full width of the parking space. Two parallel parking spaces may share a perpendicular access aisle. The vehicular travel lane shall not encroach on any required access aisle. The area between any curb and the pedestrian access route shall comply with Section X02.1.5 in order to allow the deployment of a side lift from a wheelchair accessible space and shall be connected to the pedestrian access route.

EXCEPTION: Where the width of the public pedestrian right-of-way between the extension of the normal curb and boundary of the public right-of-way is less than 12 feet (3660 mm), a parallel access aisle is not required at parallel parking spaces.

X02.6.1.5 Perpendicular or angled parking spaces. Where perpendicular or angled parking is provided, a parallel access aisle at least 60 inches (1525 mm) wide shall be provided at street level the full length of the accessible parking space. At van accessible parking spaces, a parallel access aisle at least 96 inches wide shall be provided at street level the full length of the van accessible parking space. Two perpendicular parking spaces may share an access aisle.

Advisory:Where angled parking is provided, the entire area comprising the parking space and the access aisle should be marked uniformly to allow the driver to determine which side to park in to allow for egress from the vehicle for the person with a disability. An alternative is to provide a marked access aisle on both sides of the marked parking space.

X02.6.1.6 Slope. The slope of the accessible space, van accessible space, access aisle for the accessible space, and access aisle for the van accessible space shall not exceed 1:48 slope in any direction.

EXCEPTION: Where steep terrain prevents the provision of on-street parking with compliant slopes, off-street parking in compliance with proposed ADAAG Section 502 may be provided as long as an accessible connection to the pedestrian access route is provided.

Discussion: For many people with disabilities, a sloped parking space is useless because of the potential hazards it presents. Not only may a sloped space be hazardous to use, a sloped space can damage a van lift.

X02.6.1.7 Curb ramps. A curb ramp complying with Section X02.4 shall connect the access aisle to the pedestrian access route.

X02.6.1.8 Parking space signage. Parking spaces required to be accessible shall be designated as reserved by a sign that complies with proposed ADAAG Section 502.6. Van accessible spaces shall contain an additional sign "Van Accessible" mounted below the symbol of accessibility. Signs shall be located within the width or length of the space they serve and located within 3 feet (915 mm) of the head of the parking space so as not to interfere with the operation of a side lift or a passenger side transfer.

X02.6.1.9 Markings. Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

X02.6.1.10 Obstructions. Obstructions such as street furniture, fire hydrants, parking meters, signs, mailboxes, landscaping, and trash receptacles shall not be placed adjacent to the accessible space in a manner that may interfere with the operation of a side lift or a passenger side transfer.

Discussion: The committee also discussed problems with accessible spaces being located next to a public sidewalk cluttered with street furniture such as trash receptacles, sign posts, trees, etc. Since various types of vehicles are driven by people with disabilities, the public sidewalk next to the parking space needs to be clear of obstructions in case it is needed for a side lift or passenger side transfer directly to the public sidewalk.

Figure X02.6 A Parallel Parking

Two accessible parallel parking spaces sharing a perpendicular access aisle between the two spaces. The access aisle is 5' wide, minimum. In one space, the vehicle is shown parked close to the curb, while in the other space, the car is parked closer to traffic to allow exiting the vehicle on the curb side.
Two accessible parallel parking spaces sharing a perpendicular access aisle between the two spaces. The access aisle is 5' wide, minimum. In one space, the vehicle is shown parked close to the curb, while in the other space, the car is parked closer to traffic to allow exiting the vehicle on the curb side.

Figure X02.6 B Parallel Parking Space without Access Aisle

A single accessible parallel parking space with a 5' access aisle at the rear of the space. Dimensions depict the exception proposed in this report to not require the access aisle if there is less than 12' of available right of way from the normal curb line to the right of way line.

A single accessible parallel parking space with a 5' access aisle at the rear of the space. Dimensions depict the exception proposed in this report to not require the access aisle if there is less than 12' of available right of way from the normal curb line to the right of way line.

Figure X02.6 C Perpendicular Parking

A single perpendicular accessible parking space with a 5' access aisle to the right of the space. On the right, the figure shows two van accessible perpendicular parking spaces with a common 8' access aisle between them.

A single perpendicular accessible parking space with a 5' access aisle to the right of the space. On the right, the figure shows two van accessible perpendicular parking spaces with a common 8' access aisle between them.

Figure X02.6 D Angle Parking

Two angle accessible parking spaces with a 5' access aisle between them and two van accessible angle parking spaces with an 8' access aisle between them. The figure depicts a total of 4 parking spaces with a curb ramp for each access aisle.

Two angle accessible parking spaces with a 5' access aisle between them and two van accessible angle parking spaces with an 8' access aisle between them. The figure depicts a total of 4 parking spaces with a curb ramp for each access aisle.

X02.6.2 Parking meters.

X02.6.2.1 General. Where public meters are provided, each shall comply with the requirements set forth in this section.

X02.6.2.2 Controls. The centerline of controls on all parking meters shall be no more than 42 inches (1065mm) above the pedestrian access route. Controls and operating mechanisms shall be operable from the pedestrian access route with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds.

Discussion: The 42-inch high dimension for parking control mounting height was selected to be consistent with the mounting height for pedestrian push buttons on traffic signal poles.

X02.6.2.3 Clear space. Where parking meters serve accessible parking spaces required under this section, a stable, firm, and slip-resistant clear ground space complying with proposed ADAAG Section 305 shall be provided at the controls. Where only a parallel approach is provided, controls shall be within 10 inches horizontally of, and centered on, the clear ground space. Where only a forward approach is provided, controls shall abut and be centered on the clear ground space.

Discussion: Some committee members felt that a larger clear ground space is necessary in the public right-of-way. See discussion under X02.3.1.3.

X02.6.2.4 Location. A parking meter shall be located within 3 feet (915 mm) of the head or foot of the parking space so as not to interfere with the operation of a side lift or a passenger side transfer.

EXCEPTION: Where meters are not provided at the accessible space, but payment for parking in the accessible space is included in a centralized collection box/paying station, the accessible space shall be connected to the centralized collection point with a pedestrian access route.

X02.6.2.5 Display. Where instructions such as hours of operation are provided, they shall not be displayed solely on a horizontal surface of the meter.

Discussion: Parking meter instructions are frequently located on a horizontal plate mounted near the top of the meter. These instructions can not be viewed by a person in a wheelchair or a person of short stature.

X02.6.3 Passenger Loading Zones

X02.6.3.1 General. Where passenger loading and drop-off zones are provided in the public right-of-way for use by the general public, each shall meet the requirements set forth in this section.

X02.6.3.2 Minimum number of curb ramps. Where a curb adjoins a passenger loading zone serving multiple vehicle pull-up spaces (e.g., at transportation facilities), a minimum of one curb ramp complying with Section X02.4 shall be provided at intervals not to exceed 100 feet (30mm).

X02.6.3.3 Width and length. Loading zones shall not be smaller in width or length than that specified by the local jurisdiction and in no case less than 8 feet wide and 20 feet long (2440 by 6100mm).

X02.6.3.4 Access Aisle. Each passenger loading zone shall provide a parallel access aisle at least 60 inches wide and 20 feet long (1525 x 6100mm) adjacent and parallel to the vehicle pull-up space. The access aisle shall connect to the pedestrian access route in compliance with Section X02.

X02.6.3.5 Signage. Where signage is provided, it shall comply with Section X02.3.8.

Advisory: Signing an accessible loading zone is not required. However, if signage is provided, it shall comply with specifications for accessibility.

X02.6.4 Motorist aid communication systems.

X02.6.4.1 General. Where motorist aid communication systems are provided, each shall comply with the requirements set forth in this section.

Advisory: When communication systems such as call boxes are located in an urban area and parking is provided, an accessible parking space should be located near the system and connected to the system with an pedestrian access route .

X02.6.4.2 Controls and operating mechanisms. Controls and operating mechanisms shall comply with the following requirements:

(A) Controls and operating mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater than 5 pounds (22.2 N).

Discussion: The committee received comments from a manufacturer of a user-powered motorist aid communication system that it was not possible for their system to achieve the recommended 5 pounds maximum operating force, given the limitations of current technology. These mechanical systems use the energy imparted by the pull of a mechanical lever, using the downward pull force of a person's body weight, to generate the power required to transmit the 'help' message. Representatives indicated that some public entities wish to select systems that are able to generate their own power, due to the remote location of the installations, and noted their efforts to re-engineer their system to reduce operating force. Although the committee was sympathetic to the concerns expressed and recognized the limitations which currently exist, they were also concerned that a higher allowable force required on a control or operating mechanism might preclude its use by some people with disabilities. Furthermore, the committee did not have sufficient research to justify the appropriateness of an alternate force requirement and anticipated that those limitations might be reduced with future industry research. Thus, the committee chose to retain the 5 pound recommendation and invited the manufacturer to seek an exception in comment to the Access Board when the proposed rule is issued by the Board.

(B) Operable parts that are labeled shall be labeled in Braille complying with proposed ADAAG Section 703.5 and in large print (3/16 of an inch based on the letter I) and shall utilize a "sans serif" font.

(C) Controls shall be centered on the clear ground space and shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 308 except that the highest operable part shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finished surface at the system location.

Discussion: The 48-inch dimension for the highest operable part is retained to avoid creating a roadside safety concern for vehicles leaving the roadway. Once there, the device must be designed such that persons with a variety of disabilities can use it. The user of the device is not always the driver, hence the need for Braille and large print instructions.

X02.6.4.3 Clear ground space. A stable, firm, and slip-resistant clear ground space a minimum of 72 inches by 72 inches (1830 mm by 1830 mm), with a slope no greater than 1:48 in any direction and with at least 2-inch (51mm) edge protection except at the entrance from the pedestrian access route, shall be provided at the controls and shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 306.

Discussion: A clear ground space of 72 inches by 72 inches is required since users are typically required to leave the roadway, approach a communication system in the public right-of-way, and then make a 180 degree turn to return to their vehicle. It would be undesirable to require users to back out of a location and return to the vehicular way without a clear view of traffic. All turns will have to be made within the confines of the clear ground space due to the requirement for edge protection.

X02.6.4.4 Motor vehicle turnouts. A motor vehicle turnout with a minimum paved area of 16 feet (4880 mm) wide by 23 feet (7015 mm) long, and not exceeding a 1:48 slope in any direction, shall be provided and shall connect to the clear ground space at the motorist aid communication system with a pedestrian access route. Where shoulder texturing is used, it shall be discontinued at the turnout.

Discussion: A person with a disability needing assistance needs sufficient space to pull out of the traffic lanes, exit their vehicle, and traverse an accessible route to the communication device. A vehicle turnout is required to ensure that enough space is available for a person with a disability to exit their vehicle, travel around the vehicle if necessary, and travel to the motorist communication device.

X02.6.4.5 Two-way communication. Where two-way voice communication is provided, the system shall comply with proposed ADAAG Section 704 and Section 708 and shall include volume controls and a permanent text telephone (TTY). The system shall also provide for VCO and HCO.

X02.6.4.6 Handsets. Handsets, if provided, shall be hearing aid compatible with inductive coupling capability and shall not cause interference with hearing aids. Handset cords shall be at least 29 inches (735 mm) long.

X02.6.4.7 Volume control. Volume controls, if provided, shall provide a gain adjustable to a minimum of 20dB. For incremental volume control, at least one intermediate step of 12dB of gain shall be provided. An automatic reset shall be provided.

Discussion: Because the roadway is a very noisy environment, at least 20dB of gain is necessary for some callers to be able to hear above the ambient noise level.

X02.6.4.8 TTY. Text telephone (TTY) communications, if provided, shall include automatic notification to the recipient that the call is a TTY call, and visual notification to the user that the call has been received.

X02.6.5 Overlooks and viewing areas.

Discussion: The committee noted that overlooks and viewing areas often occur as part of the public right-of-way, particularly as a vehicular pull-off from the roadway coupled with an area which permits the passenger to exit his or her car and to look at the scenery. The committee recognized that the Access Board's Regulatory Negotiation Committee for Outdoor Developed Areas proposed recommendations for such areas in their report published in September 1999. Rather than duplicate the work of that committee, the PROWAAC recommends that overlooks and viewing areas follow the same technical specifications as those proposed in 16.10 of the Report on Outdoor Developed Areas.

X02.6.6 Vertical and horizontal deflection measures.

X02.6.6.1 General. Where no pedestrian access route is provided within the public right-of-way, a passage of at least 36 inches (915 mm) must be provided between the vertical deflection and the curb or gutter, free of changes in level and with a cross slope not to exceed 1:48. Parking shall not be permitted at these locations.

Discussion: Although the committee did not provide any technical or scoping provisions for vertical or horizontal deflections, per se, they did acknowledge that there are situations where there is no pedestrian access route (or public sidewalk) on the adjacent side of the roadway and pedestrians, including wheelchair users, often use the roadway for walking. In those instances, the presence of a deflection in the roadway which traverses the entire width of the roadway will present a major barrier for wheelchair users. Thus, the committee recommended in those situations that a clear width of 36 inches without vertical deflection be provided at the outer width of the roadway to permit passage of a wheelchair user.

X02.6.6.2 Location. Reserved.

Advisory: Vertical deflection measures are devices placed in the roadway that use the forces of vertical acceleration to discourage speeding by motorists. Vertical deflection measures include, but are not limited to, speed bumps, speed humps, speed tables and raised intersections. Horizontal deflection measures are devices placed in the roadway that use the forces of lateral acceleration to discourage speeding by motorists. Horizontal deflection measures include, but are not limited to, traffic circles, chicanes, and lateral shifts. The committee heard significant testimony from the public during each of its public meetings from individuals with a variety of disabilities, most notably spinal cord injuries or neurological conditions, about the installation of vertical or horizontal deflection measures. Anecdotal evidence presented by those testifying argued that the vertical and horizontal deflection measures were not only painful, but often exacerbated existing conditions when riding as a passenger in a motor vehicle. While the committee was not presented with data sufficient to make a policy recommendation in the area of a final recommended guideline, the committee did acknowledge and recognize that the impact of these traffic calming measures on persons with disabilities as motor vehicle passengers, rather than pedestrians, using the roadway or public rights-of-way, had not been fully addressed or researched. The committee further acknowledged that any traffic device which is intended to jolt or jar a driver in a vehicle with sufficient notice to alter (reduce) their driving speed, would similarly be felt by a person who is a passenger in the same vehicle. In the absence of research and in the face of anecdotal evidence, the committee suggests that entities consider other traffic calming measures which might achieve the same result of improved traffic safety in the design of a specific roadway and/or intersection. The Access Board has also received comments from operators of vehicles with low floors. These vehicles appear to be gaining popularity within the taxi industry for transporting persons with disabilities, and for personal vehicles adapted for use by a person with a disability. These operators report problems associated with bottoming out on various vertical deflection measures.

Recommended question: The committee recommends that the Access Board ask a question in the proposed rule about knowledge of any existing research in these areas.

Research need: The committee recommends that the Access Board establish a priority in its next budget/research cycle to study the effects of vertical and horizontal deflections used as traffic calming measures on persons with disabilities, especially those with spinal cord injuries or other neurological conditions, when they are passengers in motor vehicles (including paratransit and other public transportation vehicles).

X02.6.7 Motor vehicle turnouts. Reserved.

Advisory:A motor vehicle turnout is a widened, unobstructed shoulder which allows slow moving or non-functioning motor vehicles to pull out of the through lane to give passing opportunities to following vehicles. Where motor vehicle turnouts are provided, it is desirable for the turnout to have a minimum paved area of 16 feet (4880) wide by 23 feet(7015 mm) long and slopes not exceeding a 1:48 slope in any direction. This dimension will allow the turnout to also be used by a person with a disability who needs to service their vehicle. If use by people with disabilities can be accommodated at the turnout, any shoulder texturing such as rumble strips should be discontinued at the turnout.

Discussion: There was discussion about requiring all motor vehicle turnouts to be accessible by requiring minimum dimensions and level slope and grade. However, this was viewed by many on the committee as being impractical in the mountainous regions where turnouts are typically provided. Therefore, the committee decided to include only advisory language at this time.