Text of the Draft Final Accessibility Guidelines

Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines

ABA Chapter 1:  Application and Administration

Add new defined terms to F106.5 as follows:

F106.5 Defined Terms

Camping Facility.  A site, or portion of a site, developed for outdoor recreational purposes that contains camping units.

Camping Unit.  An outdoor space in camping facilities used for camping that contains outdoor constructed features, parking spaces for recreational vehicles or other vehicles, tent pads or tent platforms, or camp shelters.

Outdoor Constructed Features.  Picnic tables, fire rings, grills, fireplaces, wood stoves, trash and recycling receptacles, water hydrants, utility and sewage hookups, outdoor rinsing showers, benches, telescopes, and periscopes provided at outdoor recreation facilities.

Picnic Facility.  A site, or portion of a site, developed for outdoor recreational purposes that contains picnic units.

Picnic Unit.  An outdoor space in picnic facilities used for picnicking that contains outdoor constructed features.

Trail.  A pedestrian route developed primarily for outdoor recreational purposes.  A pedestrian route developed primarily to connect elements, spaces, or facilities within a site is not a trail.

Trailhead.  An outdoor space developed to serve as an access point to a trail.  The junction of two or more trails, where no other access point is provided to the trails, is not a trailhead.

Viewing Area.  An outdoor space developed for viewing a landscape or point of interest such as a mountain range, a valley, or a waterfall.

Amend the following existing defined terms in F106.5 to remove the examples:

F106.5 Defined Terms

Circulation Path.  An exterior or interior way of passage provided for pedestrian travel.

Walk.  An exterior prepared surface for pedestrian use.

ABA Chapter 2:  Scoping Requirements

Add new sections F201.4 and F201.4.1 as follows:

F201.4 Requirements Limited to Facilities Constructed or Altered by or on behalf of the Federal Government.  The requirements in F244 through F248, and 1011 through 1019 shall apply only to facilities that are constructed or altered by or on behalf of the Federal government.

Advisory F201.4 Requirements Limited to Facilities Constructed by or on behalf of the Federal Government.  The scoping requirements for camping facilities in F244; picnic facilities in F245; viewing areas in F246; trails in F247; and beach access routes in F248 and the related technical requirements in 1011 through 1019 apply to Federal land management agencies, including the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation, and Army Corps of Engineers.  The requirements also apply to non-federal entities that construct or alter camping facilities, picnic facilities, beach facilities, trails, or viewing areas on Federal lands on behalf of the Federal government pursuant to a concession contract, agreement, or other arrangement.

F201.4.1 Notification When Entire Trail or Beach Access Route Exempted.  Federal agencies shall notify the Access Board when an entire trail is exempted based on Exception 2 in 1017.1 or an entire beach access route is exempted based on Exception 2 in 1018.1.

Add term “outdoor constructed features” to F202.3 and add new Exception 4 to F202.3 as follows:

F202.3 Alterations.  Where existing elements, spaces, or outdoor constructed features are altered, each altered element, space, or outdoor constructed feature shall comply with the applicable requirements of Chapter 2.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Unless required by F202.4, where elements or spaces are altered and the circulation path to the altered element or space is not altered, an accessible route shall not be required.

2.  In alterations, where compliance with applicable requirements is technically infeasible, the alteration shall comply with the requirements to the maximum extent feasible.

3.  Residential dwelling units not required to be accessible in compliance with a standard issued pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act shall not be required to comply with F202.3.

4.  Where elements, spaces, or outdoor constructed features are altered in camping facilities, picnic facilities, viewing areas, or trailheads and the circulation path to the altered element, space, or outdoor constructed feature is not altered, an outdoor recreation access route shall not be required.

Advisory F202.3 Alterations. Although covered entities are permitted to limit the scope of an alteration to individual elements or outdoor constructed features, the alteration of multiple elements or outdoor constructed features within a room or space may provide a cost-effective opportunity to make the entire room or space accessible.  Any elements, spaces, or outdoor constructed features of the building or facility that are required to comply with these requirements must be made accessible within the scope of the alteration, to the maximum extent feasible.  If providing accessibility in compliance with these requirements for people with one type of disability (e.g., people who use wheelchairs) is not feasible, accessibility must still be provided in compliance with the requirements for people with other types of disabilities (e.g., people who have hearing impairments or who have vision impairments) to the extent that such accessibility is feasible.

Add new Exception 2 to F202.4 as follows:

F202.4 Alterations Affecting Primary Function Areas.  In addition to the requirements of F202.3, an alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or access to an area containing a primary function shall be made so as to ensure that, to the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area, including the restrooms, telephones, and drinking fountains serving the altered area, are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, unless such alterations are disproportionate to the overall alterations in terms of cost and scope as determined under criteria established by the Administrator of the General Services Administration, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Housing or Urban Development, or the United States Postal Service.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Residential dwelling units shall not be required to comply with F202.4.

2.  Camping facilities, picnic facilities, viewing areas, trailheads, trails, and beach access routes shall not be required to comply with F202.4.

Amend F206.1 for clarity and add new Exceptions 1, 2, and 3 to F206.1 as follows:

F206.1 General.  Accessible routes shall be provided in accordance with F206 and shall comply with Chapter 4. The Exceptions in 403.5, 405.5, and 405.8 regarding common use circulation paths in employee work areas shall not apply.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Accessible routes shall not be required where outdoor recreation access routes are provided within camping facilities in accordance with F244.5, picnic facilities in accordance with F245.4, viewing areas in accordance with F246.3, or trailheads in accordance with F247.4.2.

2.  Accessible routes shall not be required where camping facilities, picnic facilities, viewing areas, or outdoor constructed features are provided on trails.

3.  Accessible routes shall not be required where beach access routes are provided in accordance with F248.

Add new Exception 2 to F212.3 as follows:

F212.3 Sinks.  Where sinks are provided, at least 5 percent, but no fewer than one, of each type provided in each accessible room or space shall comply with 606.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Mop or service sinks shall not be required to comply with F212.3.

2.  In camping facilities and picnic facilities, sinks shall not be required to comply with F212.3 where a cooktop or conventional range is not provided.

Add new sections F244 through F248 as follows:

F244 Camping Facilities

F244.1 General.  Camping facilities, other than camping facilities on trails, shall comply with F244.

Advisory F244.1 General.  Camping facilities on trails are addressed in F247.5.1.

F244.2 Camping Units.  Camping facilities shall provide accessible camping units in accordance with F244.2.

F244.2.1 Minimum Number.  Newly constructed camping facilities shall provide accessible camping units in accordance with Table F244.2.1.  Where a camping facility provides separate types of camping units for recreational vehicles only, for tent camping only, or for camp shelters only, Table F244.2.1 shall apply to each separate type of camping unit provided.

Table F244.2.1 Camping Units
Total Number of Camping Units Provided in Camping FacilityMinimum Number of Accessible Camping Units Required
1 1
2 to 25 2
26 to 50 3
51 to 75 4
76 to 100 5
101 to 150 7
151 to 200 8
201 and over 8, plus 2 percent of the number over 200

F244.2.2 Alterations.  Where camping units are altered or added, the requirements of F244.2.shall apply only to the camping units that are altered or added until the number of accessible camping units complies with the minimum number required for new construction.

EXCEPTION:  Where an entity is implementing a transition plan developed pursuant to regulations issued under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act that designates specific camping units to comply with F244.2, the entity shall not be required to comply with F244.2 when altering individual outdoor constructed features or spaces within camping units that are not designated to comply with F244.2.

Advisory F244.2.2 Alterations Exception.  This exception addresses the situation where a camping facility does not provide the minimum required number of accessible camping units, and individual outdoor constructed features or spaces within camping units are altered.  Where a Federal agency is implementing a transition plan that designates specific camping units to become accessible, the Federal agency is not required to comply with F244.2 when altering individual outdoor constructed features or spaces within camping units that are not designated to become accessible under the transition plan. The exception does not apply where all the outdoor constructed features and spaces within a camping unit are altered.  Where all the outdoor constructed features and spaces within a camping unit are altered, the altered camping unit is required to comply with F244.2 unless the minimum required number of accessible camping units is provided.

F244.2.3 Dispersion.  Accessible camping units shall provide choices of camping units comparable to, and integrated with, those available to others.

F244.2.4 Accessible Camping Units.  Accessible camping units shall comply with F244.2.4.

EXCEPTIONS:  1. Where accessible camping units contain more than one outdoor constructed feature or parking space of the same type, no more than 20 percent but not less than two of the outdoor constructed features or parking spaces of the same type shall be required to comply with F244.2.4.

2. Where accessible camping units contain more than one tent pad, tent platform, or camp shelter, no more than 20 percent but not less than two of the tent pads, tent platforms, or camp shelters shall be required to comply with F244.2.4.

Advisory F244.2.4 Accessible Camping Units.  Accessible camping units are not required to be identified by signs.  Entities should provide information on the location of accessible camping units on websites, in brochures, and at bulletin boards or information kiosks at the camping facility.  Where entities operate reservation systems for camping units or assign camping units upon arrival, entities should establish policies to ensure that accessible camping units are available for persons with disabilities until all the camping units are occupied.

F244.2.4.1 Outdoor Constructed Features.  Where provided within accessible camping units, outdoor constructed features shall comply with 1011.

F244.2.4.2 Parking Spaces.  Where provided within accessible camping units, parking spaces for recreational vehicles shall comply with 1012.2, 1012.4, and 1012.5; and parking spaces for vehicles other than recreational vehicles shall comply with 1012.3, 1012.4, and 1012.5.

F244.2.4.3 Tent Pads and Tent Platforms.  Where provided within accessible camping units, tent pads and tent platforms shall comply with 1013.

F244.2.4.4 Camp Shelters.  Where provided within accessible camping units, camp shelters shall comply with 1014.

F244.3 Outdoor Constructed Features in Common Use and Public Use Areas.  Where provided in common use and public use areas that serve accessible camping units, at least 20 percent but not less than one of each type of outdoor constructed feature provided at each location shall comply with 1011.

F244.4 Recreational Vehicle Dump Stations.  Pull-up spaces for recreational vehicles at dump stations shall comply with 1012.2, 1012.4, and 1012.5.

F244.5 Outdoor Recreation Access Routes.  Camping facilities shall provide outdoor recreation access routes complying with 1016 in accordance with F244.5.

Advisory F244.5 Outdoor Recreation Access Route.  In alterations to existing camping facilities, there are exceptions in 1016.1 that can be used where conditions specified in 1019 apply.

F244.5.1 Within Accessible Camping Units.  At least one outdoor recreation access route shall connect accessible outdoor constructed features, elements, spaces, and facilities within each accessible camping unit.

F244.5.2 Common Use and Public Use Areas.  At least one outdoor recreation access route shall connect each accessible camping unit with accessible outdoor constructed features, elements, spaces, and facilities in common use and public use areas within the camping facility that serve the accessible camping unit.

EXCEPTION:  Outdoor recreation access routes shall not be required to connect accessible camping units and recreational vehicle dump stations, provided an outdoor recreation access route connects an accessible vehicle pull-up space at the dump station to accessible outdoor constructed features, elements, spaces, and facilities provided at the dump station.

F244.5.3 Adjacent Recreation Facilities.  Where a circulation path connects camping facilities and adjacent recreation facilities, at least one outdoor recreation access route shall connect accessible camping units within the camping facility to an accessible route serving the adjacent recreation facility.

Advisory F244.5.3 Adjacent Recreation Facilities.  F244.5.3 does not modify the accessible route requirements in F206.2.1, F206.2.4, and F206.2.8 through F206.2.16 that apply to adjacent recreation facilities.

F244.5.4 Location. Outdoor recreation access routes required by F244.5.2 and F244.5.3 shall coincide with or be located in the same area as general circulation paths.

Advisory F244.5.4 Location.  Where a vehicular way serves as the general circulation path for pedestrians at a camping facility, the outdoor recreation access route can be provided within the vehicular way.

F245 Picnic Facilities

F245.1 General.  Picnic facilities, other than picnic facilities on trails, shall comply with F245.

Advisory F245.1 General.  Picnic facilities on trails are addressed in F247.5.2.

F245.2 Picnic Units. Picnic facilities shall provide accessible picnic units in accordance with F245.2.

F245.2.1 Minimum Number.  Newly constructed picnic facilities shall provide accessible picnic units in accordance with F245.2.1.

F245.2.1.1 Picnic Facilities with Two or Fewer Picnic Units.  Where picnic facilities contain two or fewer picnic units, each picnic unit shall be accessible.

F245.2.1.2 Picnic Facilities with More Than Two Picnic Units.  Where picnic facilities contain more than two picnic units, at least 20 percent but not less than two of the picnic units shall be accessible.

F245.2.2 Alterations.  Where picnic units are altered or added, the requirements of F245.2 shall apply only to the picnic units that are altered or added until the number of accessible picnic units complies with the minimum number required for new construction.

EXCEPTION:  Where an entity is implementing a transition plan developed pursuant to regulations issued under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act that designates specific picnic units to comply with F245.2, the entity shall not be required to comply with F245.2 when altering individual outdoor constructed features or spaces in picnic units that are not designated to comply with F245.2.

Advisory F245.2.2 Alterations Exception.  This exception addresses the situation where a picnic facility does not provide the minimum required number of accessible picnic units, and individual outdoor constructed features or spaces within picnic units are altered.  Where a Federal agency is implementing a transition plan that designates specific picnic units to become accessible, the Federal agency is not required to comply with F245.2 when altering individual outdoor constructed features or spaces within picnic units that are not designated to become accessible under the transition plan.  The exception does not apply where all the outdoor constructed features and spaces within a picnic unit are altered.  Where all the outdoor constructed features and spaces within a picnic unit are altered, the altered picnic unit is required to comply with F245.2 unless the minimum required number of accessible picnic units is provided.

F245.2.3 Dispersion.  Accessible picnic units shall provide choices of picnic units comparable to, and integrated with, those available to others.

F245.2.4 Accessible Picnic Units.  Accessible picnic units shall comply with F245.2.4.

EXCEPTION:  Where accessible picnic units contain more than one parking space or outdoor constructed feature of the same type, no more than 20 percent but not less than two of the parking spaces or outdoor constructed features of the same type shall be required to comply with F245.2.4.

Advisory F245.2.4 Accessible Picnic Units.  Accessible picnic units are not required to be identified by signs.  Entities should provide information on the location of accessible picnic units on websites, in brochures, and at bulletin boards or information kiosks at the picnic facility.

F245.2.4.1 Outdoor Constructed Features.  Where provided within accessible picnic units, outdoor constructed features shall comply with 1011.

F245.2.4.2 Parking Spaces.  Where provided within accessible picnic units, parking spaces shall comply with 1012.3, 1012.4, and 1012.5.

F245.3 Outdoor Constructed Features in Common Use and Public Use Areas.  Where provided in common use and public use areas that serve accessible picnic units, at least 20 percent but not less than one of each type of outdoor constructed feature provided at each location shall comply with 1011.

F245.4 Outdoor Recreation Access Routes.  Picnic facilities shall provide outdoor recreation access routes complying with 1016 where required by F245.4.

Advisory F245.4.  Outdoor Recreation Access Route.  In alterations to existing picnic facilities, there are exceptions in 1016.1 that can be used where conditions specified in 1019 apply.

F245.4.1 Within Accessible Picnic Units.  At least one outdoor recreation access route shall connect accessible outdoor constructed features, elements, spaces, and facilities within each accessible picnic unit.

F245.4.2 Common Use and Public Use Areas.  At least one outdoor recreation access route shall connect each accessible picnic unit with accessible outdoor constructed features, elements, spaces, and facilities in common use and public use areas within the picnic facility that serve the accessible picnic unit.

F245.4.3 Adjacent Recreation Facilities. Where a circulation path connects picnic facilities and adjacent recreation facilities, at least one outdoor recreation access route shall connect accessible picnic units within the picnic facility to an accessible route serving the adjacent recreation facility.

Advisory F245.4.3 Adjacent Recreation Facilities.  F245.4.3 does not modify the accessible route requirements in F206.2.1, F206.2.4, and F206.2.8 through F206.2.16 that apply to adjacent recreation facilities.

F245.4.4 Location.  Outdoor recreation access routes required by F245.4.2 and F245.4.3 shall coincide with or be located in the same area as general circulation paths.

Advisory F245.4.4 Location.  Where a vehicular way serves as the general circulation path for pedestrians at a picnic facility, the outdoor recreation access route can be provided within the vehicular way.

F246 Viewing Areas

F246.1 General.  Viewing areas, other than viewing areas on trails, shall comply with F246.1.

Advisory F246.1 General.  Viewing areas on trails are addressed in F247.6.3.

F246.2 Distinct Viewing Locations.  Each distinct viewing location within a viewing area shall comply with 1015.

Advisory F246.2 Distinct Viewing Locations.  Viewing areas can provide more than one distinct viewing location.  For example, a viewing area can provide a distinct viewing location for observing a mountain range, and another distinct viewing location for observing a river.  Distinct viewing locations within a viewing area can be designated by signs or other markers.

F246.3 Outdoor Constructed Features.  Where provided within viewing areas, at least 20 percent but not less than one of each type of outdoor constructed feature shall comply with 1011.

F246.4 Outdoor Recreation Access Routes.  At least one outdoor recreation access route complying with 1016 shall connect the following where provided at viewing areas:

  1. Accessible parking spaces or other arrival points; and
  2. Accessible outdoor constructed features, elements, spaces, and facilities within the viewing area.

Advisory F246.4.  Outdoor Recreation Access Route.  There are exceptions in 1016.1 that can be used where conditions specified in 1019 apply.

F247 Trails

F247.1 General. Trails shall comply with F247 where the trail is directly connected to:

  1. A trailhead; or
  2. Another trail complying with 1017.

EXCEPTION:  Trails that are designed for use by other than pedestrians shall not be required to comply with F247.

Advisory F247.1 General.  On trails that contain trail segments, only the trail segments that directly connect to a trailhead or another trail segment complying with 1017 are required to comply with F247.

Advisory F247.1 General Exception.  The Federal Trail Data Standards classify trails by their designed use and managed use.  Under these standards, a trail has only one designed use that determines the design, construction, and maintenance parameters for the trail.  Trails that have a designed use for hikers/pedestrians are required to comply with F247.  A trail can have more than one managed use based on a management decision to allow other uses on the trail.

F247.2 New Construction.  Newly constructed trails shall comply with 1017.

Advisory F247.2 New Construction.  There are exceptions in 1017.1 that can be used where conditions specified in 1019 apply.

F247.3 Existing Trails.  Alterations to existing trails that change the original design, function, or purpose of the trail shall comply with 1017.

Advisory F247.3 Existing Trails.  Changing the overall grade, width, or surface of an existing trail, or rerouting an existing trail are examples of alterations that are required to comply with 1017.  Routine or periodic maintenance activities that are performed to return an existing trail to the condition to which the trail was originally designed are not required to comply with 1017.

F247.4 Trailheads.  Trailheads shall comply with F247.4.

F247.4.1 Trailhead Signs.  Where new signs are provided at trailheads on newly constructed or altered trails, the signs shall comply with 1017.11.

Advisory F247.4.1 Trailhead Signs.  New trailhead signs are required to comply with F247.5 regardless of whether the newly constructed or altered trails comply with 1017.

F247.4.2 Outdoor Constructed Features.  Where provided within trailheads, at least 20 percent but not less than one of each type of outdoor constructed feature provided shall comply with 1011.

F247.4.3 Outdoor Recreation Access Routes.  At least one outdoor recreation access route complying with 1016 shall connect the following where provided at trailheads:

  1. Accessible parking spaces or other arrival points;
  2. Starting point of the trail; and
  3. Accessible outdoor constructed features, elements, spaces, and facilities within the trailhead.

Advisory F247.4.3 Outdoor Recreation Access Route.  In alterations to existing trailheads, there are exceptions in 1016.1 that can be used where conditions specified in 1019 apply.

F247.5 Trail Facilities.  Where provided on trails, facilities shall comply with F247.5.

Advisory F247.5 Trail Facilities.  Outdoor recreation access routes are not required at camping facilities, picnic facilities, or viewing areas provided on trails.

F247.5.1 Camping Facilities.  Camping facilities provided on trails shall comply with F244.2 and F244.3.

F247.5.2 Picnic Facilities.  Picnic facilities provided on trails shall comply with F245.2 and F245.3.

F247.5.3 Viewing Areas.  Viewing areas provided on trails shall comply with F246.2 and F246.3.

F247.6 Outdoor Constructed Features.  Where outdoor constructed features are provided on trails, other than within facilities specified in F247.5, at least 20 percent but not less than one of each type of outdoor constructed feature at each location shall comply with 1011.

F248 Beach Access Routes

F248.1 General.  Beach access routes complying with 1018 shall be provided where required by F248.1.  Beach access routes shall be permanent or removable.

EXCEPTION:  Beach access routes shall not be required where pedestrian access to the beach is not permitted.

Advisory F248.1 General.  There are exceptions in 1018.1 that can be used where conditions specified in 1019 apply.  Removable beach access routes can be moved to a protected storage area during storms and other periods when the routes are subject to damage or loss.

F248.1.1 Facilities Serving Beaches.  Beach access routes shall be provided in a number complying with F248.2 where the entity that manages a beach constructs or alters any of the following facilities to serve the beach:

  1. Circulation paths;
  2. Parking facilities;
  3. Toilet facilities; or
  4. Bathing facilities.

EXCEPTION:  An entity shall not be required to expend more than 20 percent of the costs of constructing or altering the facilities to provide beach access routes.

F248.1.2 Beach Nourishment.  Beach access routes shall be provided in a number complying with F248.2 where the entity that manages a beach undertakes a beach nourishment project.

EXCEPTION:  An entity shall not be required to expend more than 20 percent of the costs of a beach nourishment project to provide beach access routes.

F248.2 Minimum Number.  Where beach access routes are required by F248.1, at least one beach access route shall be provided for each ½ mile (0.8 km) of shoreline managed by the entity.

EXCEPTION:  The number of beach access routes shall not be required to exceed the number of pedestrian access points provided by the entity to a beach.

Advisory F248.2 Minimum Number Exception.  Pedestrian access points to a beach include parking facilities that serve beaches, dune crossings, and stairways or ramps leading from boardwalks to the beach.

F248.3 Location.  Beach access routes shall coincide with or be located in the same area as pedestrian access points to the beach.

Chapter 3:  Building Blocks

Add “diagonal” to last sentence of 302.3 and new Exception to 302.3 as follows:

302.3 Openings.  Openings in floor or ground surfaces shall not allow passage of a sphere more than ½ inch (13 mm) diameter except as allowed in 407.4.3, 409.4.3, 410.4, 810.5.3 and 810.10.  Elongated openings shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular or diagonal to the dominant direction of travel.

EXCEPTION:  Elongated openings shall be permitted to be placed so that the long dimension is parallel to the dominant direction of travel provided the opening does not allow passage of a sphere more than ¼ inch (6.4 mm) diameter.

Chapter 10:  Recreation Facilities

Amend Advisory 1001.1 to read as follows:

1001.1 Scope.  The provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

Advisory 1001.1 Scope.  Unless otherwise modified or specifically addressed in Chapter 10, all other requirements in this document apply to the design and construction of recreation facilities.

The requirements in 1011 through 1019 apply only to outdoor recreation facilities designed, constructed, or altered by or on behalf of Federal agencies.  The requirements for these outdoor recreation facilities differ due to limitations and other constraints posed by the existing outdoor environment.

Add new sections 1011 through 1019 as follows:

1011 Outdoor Constructed Features

1011.1 General.  All outdoor constructed features shall comply with 1011.2 and 1011.3.  Outdoor constructed features specified in 1011.4 through 1011.8 shall comply with those requirements, as applicable.

Advisory 1011.1 General.  The requirements in 1011 apply to outdoor constructed features provided within camping facilities, picnic facilities, viewing areas, and trailheads or on trails.

1011.2 Clear Ground Space.  A clear ground space complying with 1011.2 shall be provided at outdoor constructed features.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Where individual outdoor constructed features are altered and the ground surface is not altered, the clear ground space shall not be required to comply with 1011.2.2 and 1011.2.3.

2. In alterations, where a condition in 1019 does not permit full compliance, the clear ground space shall comply with 1011.2 to the maximum extent feasible.

1011.2.1 Size and Location. The size and location of the clear ground space shall be in accordance with Table 1011.2.1.  Unless otherwise specified in Table 1011.2.1, one full unobstructed side of the clear ground space shall adjoin or overlap an outdoor recreation access route or a trail, as applicable, or another clear ground space.

Table 1011.2.1 Clear Ground Space
Outdoor Constructed FeatureMinimum Size and Location
Picnic tables 36 inches (915 mm) along all usable sides of the table measured from the back edge of the benches

Fire rings, grills, fireplaces, and woodstoves

48 inches (1220 mm) by 48 inches (1220 mm) on all usable sides of the fire ring, grill, fireplace, or woodstove

Center the space on each usable side of the grill, fireplace, and woodstove

Trash and recycling receptacles

36 inches (915 mm) by 48 inches (1220 mm) positioned for forward approach to the receptacle opening; or 30 inches (760 mm) by 60 inches (1525 mm) positioned for a parallel approach to the receptacle opening

Water hydrants

48 inches (1220 mm) by 72 inches (1830 mm) with the long side of the space adjoining or overlapping an outdoor recreation access route or trail, as applicable, or another clear ground space

Locate the space so that the water spout is 11 inches (280 mm) minimum and 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear center of the long side of the space

Utility and sewage hookups

30 inches (760 mm) by 60 inches (1525 mm) with the long side of the space adjoining or overlapping an accessible parking space or pull-up space for recreational vehicles

Locate the space so that the hook-ups are at the rear center of the space

Bollards or other barriers shall not obstruct the clear ground space in front of the hook-ups

Outdoor rinsing showers

60 inches (1525 mm) by 60 inches (1525 mm) centered on the shower heads

Locate the space so that the shower pedestal or wall with the shower head are at the rear end of the space

Benches

36 inches (915 mm) by 48 inches (1220 mm) positioned near the bench with one side of the space adjoining an outdoor recreation access route or trail, as applicable

The clear ground space shall not overlap the outdoor recreation access route or trail, or another clear ground space

Telescopes and periscopes

36 inches (915 mm) by 48 inches (1220 mm) positioned for forward approach to the telescope or periscope

Provide knee and toe clearance complying with 306 under the telescope or periscope

Locate the space so that the eyepiece is centered on the space

Advisory 1011.2.1 Size and Location.  The usable sides of picnic tables, fire rings, grills, fireplaces, and woodstoves are the sides of the outdoor constructed feature that can be used for eating or serving food, building a fire, or cooking.  All sides of picnic tables are generally usable, unless the picnic table is placed against a rock or tree that renders the side against the rock or tree not usable.  All sides of fire rings and grills are generally usable, unless there is a wall or other structure on a side that renders the side not usable. The front sides of fireplaces and woodstoves are generally the usable side.

1011.2.2 Surface. The surface of the clear ground space shall be firm and stable.

Advisory 1011.2.2 Surface. A stable surface remains unchanged by applied force so that when the force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition.  A firm surface resists deformation by indentations.

1011.2.3 Slope. The slope of the clear ground space surface shall not be steeper than 1:48 in any direction.

EXCEPTION:  When the surface is other than asphalt, concrete, or boards, slopes not steeper than 1:33 shall be permitted where necessary for drainage.

1011.2.4 Openings. Openings in the clear ground space surface shall comply with 302.3.

1011.3 Operable Parts. Operable parts shall comply with 309.3 and 309.4.

EXCEPTIONS:  1. Fire rings, grills, fireplaces, wood stoves, water hydrants, and water utility hookups shall not be required to comply with 309.4.

2. Trash and recycling receptacles with hinged lids and controls to keep out large animals shall not be required to comply with 309.4.

3. Dumpster type trash and recycling receptacles shall not be required to comply with 309.3 and 309.4.

4. Sewage hatches shall not be required to comply with 309.3 and 309.4.

1011.4 Picnic Tables.  Picnic tables shall provide at least one wheelchair space for each 24 linear feet (7320 mm) of usable table surface perimeter.  Wheelchair spaces shall be 30 inches (760 mm) minimum by 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum.  Wheelchair spaces shall be positioned for a forward approach to the table and provide knee and toe clearance complying with 306 under the table.

1011.5 Fire Rings, Grills, Fireplaces, and Wood Stoves. Fire rings, grills, fireplaces, and wood stoves shall comply with 1011.5.

Advisory 1011.5 Fire Rings, Grills, Fireplaces, and Wood Stoves.  Fire rings with double walls or insulation on the sides are recommended to prevent burns.

1011.5.1 Fire Building Surfaces.  Fire building surfaces shall be 9 inches (230 mm) minimum above the ground surface.

1011.5.2 Cooking Surfaces.  Where provided, cooking surfaces shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 34 inches (865 mm) maximum above the ground surface.

1011.5.3 Raised Edges or Walls.  Where fire rings, grills, or fireplaces are constructed with raised edges or walls, the depth of the raised edge or wall shall be 10 inches (255 mm) maximum.

1011.6 Water Spouts.  Water spouts at water hydrants and water utility hook-ups shall be 28 inches (710 mm) minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the ground surface.

1011.7 Outdoor Rinsing Showers.  Outdoor rinsing showers shall provide at least two fixed shower heads.  One fixed shower head shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum and 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the ground surface, and one fixed shower head shall be 72 inches (1830 mm) minimum above the ground surface.

EXCEPTION: A hand-held shower spray unit complying with 608.6 shall be permitted instead of the fixed shower head 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum and 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the ground surface.

1011.8 Telescopes and Periscopes.  Eyepieces on telescopes and periscopes shall be 43 inches (1090 mm) minimum and 51 inches (1295 mm) maximum above the ground surface.

1012 Parking Spaces within Accessible Camping Units and Picnic Units and Pull-Up Spaces at Recreational Vehicle Dump Stations

1012.1 General.  Parking spaces within accessible camping units and picnic units and pull-up spaces at recreational vehicle dump stations shall comply with 1012.

1012.2 Recreational Vehicles.  Parking spaces and pull-up spaces for recreational vehicles shall be 20 feet (6100 mm) wide minimum.

EXCEPTION:  Where two adjacent parking spaces are provided for recreational vehicles, one parking space shall be permitted to be 16 feet (4880 mm) wide minimum.

1012.3 Other Vehicles.  Parking spaces for vehicles, other than recreational vehicles, shall be 16 feet (4880 mm) wide minimum.

EXCEPTION:  Where two adjacent parking spaces are provided for vehicles, other than recreational vehicles, one parking space shall be permitted to be 8 feet (2440 mm) wide minimum.

1012.4 Surface.  The surface of parking spaces and pull-up spaces shall be firm and stable.

Advisory 1012.4 Surface.  A stable surface remains unchanged by applied force so that when the force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition.  A firm surface resists deformation by indentations.

1012.5 Slope.  The slope of the surface of parking spaces and pull-up spaces shall not be steeper than 1:48 in any direction.

EXCEPTION:  When the surface is other than asphalt, concrete, or boards, slopes not steeper than 1:33 shall be permitted where necessary for drainage.

1013 Tent Pads and Tent Platforms

1013.1 General.  Tent pads and tent platforms shall comply with 1013.

Advisory 1013.1 General.  Tent pads and tent platforms are defined spaces with prepared surfaces for setting up and securing tents.

1013.2 Clear Ground Space.  Clear ground space complying with 1013.2 shall be provided on all usable sides of tent pads and tent platforms.

EXCEPTION:  Where a condition in 1019 does not permit full compliance, the clear ground space shall comply with 1013.2 to the maximum extent feasible.

1013.2.1 Size.  The clear ground space shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) wide minimum.

1013.2.2 Surface.  The surface of the clear gound space shall be firm and stable.  The surface shall allow use of tent stakes and other tent securement devices.

Advisory 1013.2.2 Surface.  A stable surface remains unchanged by applied force so that when the force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition.  A firm surface resists deformation by indentations.

1013.3 Slope.  The slope of the surface of tent pads, tent platforms, and clear ground spaces shall not be steeper than 1:48 in any direction.

EXCEPTION: When the surface is other than asphalt, concrete, or boards, slopes not steeper than 1:33 shall be permitted where necessary for drainage.

1013.4 Height.  Tent platforms shall be 19 inches (485 mm) high maximum measured from the clear ground space to the tent platform surface.

 1014 Camp Shelters

1014.1 General.  Camp shelters shall comply with 1014.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Camp shelters shall not be required to comply with 307.

2. Where a condition in 1019 does not permit full compliance with a specific requirement in 1014, the camp shelter shall comply with the specific requirment to the maximum extent feasible.

Advisory 1014.1 General.  Camp shelters are typically small structures that are enclosed on three sides and have a roof or overhang.

1014.2 Clear Ground Space.  A clear ground space shall be provided at the entrance to the camp shelter.  The clear ground space shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum by 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum, and shall be positioned for a parallel approach to the camp shelter.  One full unobstructed side of the clear ground space shall adjoin or overlap an outdoor recreation access route or trail, as applicable, or another clear ground space.

1014.3 Surface.  The surface of the clear ground space at the entrance to the camp shelter and the surface of the floor space within camp shelters shall be firm and stable.

Advisory 1014.2 Surface.  A stable surface remains unchanged by applied force so that when the force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition.  A firm surface resists deformation by indentations.

1014.4 Slope.  The slope of the surface of the clear ground space at the entrance to the camp shelter and the surface of the floor space within camp shelters shall not be steeper than 1:48 in any direction.

EXCEPTION:  When the surface is other than asphalt, concrete, or boards, slopes not steeper than 1:33 shall be permitted where necessary for drainage.

1014.5 Floor Height.  Where the floor at the entrance to the camp shelter is elevated above the ground surface, the floor shall be 19 inches (485 mm) high maximum measured from the clear ground space to the floor surface.

1014.6 Turning Space.  Where level entry or ramped entry is provided, a turning space complying with 304.3 shall be provided within camp shelters.

 1015 Viewing Areas

1015.1 General.  Viewing areas shall comply with 1015.

EXCEPTION:  In alterations, where a condition in 1019 does not permit full compliance with a specific requirement in 1015, the viewing area shall comply with the specific requirement to the maximum extent feasible.

1015.2 Clear Ground Space.  A clear ground space shall be provided at each distinct viewing location.  The clear ground space shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum by 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum, and shall be positioned for either forward or parallel approach to the viewing location.  One full unobstructed side of the clear ground space shall adjoin or overlap an outdoor recreation access route or trail, as applicable, or another clear ground space.

1015.3 Unobstructed View.  An unobstructed view shall be provided between 32 inches (815 mm) and 51 inches (1295 mm) above the clear ground space at each distinct viewing location that extends the entire side of the clear ground space facing the landscape or point of interest.

EXCEPTION:  Where guardrails or other safety barriers are provided to protect visitors from drop-offs, the guardrails or other safety barriers shall be permitted to obstruct the view.

Advisory 1015.3 Unobstructed View.  See-thru panels or screened openings can be installed to create an unobstructed view above 32 inches (815mm) where guardrails or other safety barriers are provided to protect visitors from drop-offs.

1015.4 Turning Space.  A turning space complying with 304.3 shall be provided within viewing areas.

1015.5 Surface.  The surface of clear ground spaces and turning spaces shall be firm and stable.

Advisory 1015.5 Surface.  A stable surface remains unchanged by applied force so that when the force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition.  A firm surface resists deformation by indentations.

1015.6 Slope.  The slope of the clear ground space and turning space surface shall not be steeper than 1:48 in any direction.

EXCEPTION:  When the surface is other than asphalt, concrete, or boards, slopes not steeper than 1:33 shall be permitted where necessary for drainage.

1016 Outdoor Recreation Access Routes

1016.1 General.  Outdoor recreation access routes shall comply with 1016.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  In alterations to existing camping facilities, picnic facilities, and trailheads where a condition in 1019 does not permit full compliance with a specific requirement in 1016 on a portion of an outdoor recreation access route, that portion of the outdoor recreation access route shall comply with the specific requirement to the maximum extent feasible.

2.  At viewing areas, where a condition in 1019 does not permit full compliance on a portion of an outdoor recreation access route with a specific requirement in 1016, that portion of the outdoor recreation access route shall comply with the specific requirement to the maximum extent feasible.

3.  Where outdoor recreation access routes are provided within vehicular ways, outdoor recreation access routes shall not be required to comply with 1016.4, 1016.7, and 1016.8.

1016. 2 Surface.  The surface of outdoor recreation access routes and their related passing spaces and resting intervals shall be firm and stable.

Advisory 1016.2 Surface. A stable surface remains unchanged by applied force so that when the force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition.  A firm surface resists deformation by indentations.

1016.3 Clear Width. The clear width of outdoor recreation access routes shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.

EXCEPTION:  The clear width shall be permited to be reduced to 32 inches (815 mm) minimum for a length of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum provided that reduced width segments are separated by segments that are 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum.

1016.4 Passing Spaces.  Outdoor recreation access routes with a clear width less than 60 inches (1525 mm) shall provide passing spaces complying with 1016.4 at intervals of 200 feet (61 m) maximum.  Passing spaces and resting intervals shall be permitted to overlap.

Advisory 1016.4 Passing Spaces.  Entities should consider providing either a 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum clear width on outdoor recreation access routes, or passing spaces at shorter intervals if the clear width is less than 60 inches (1525 mm), where an outdoor recreation access route is:
  • Heavily used;
  • Adjoins outdoor constructed features that are heavily used;
  • A boardwalk; or
  • Not at the same level as the ground surface adjoining the outdoor recreation access route.

1016.4.1 Size.  The passing space shall be either:

  1. A space 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum by 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum; or
  2. The intersection of two outdoor recreation access routes providing a T-shaped space complying with 304.3.2 where the base and the arms of the T-shaped space extend 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum beyond the intersection.  Vertical alignment at the intersection of the outdoor recreation access routes that form the T-shaped space shall be nominally planar.

1016.5 Obstacles. Obstacles on outdoor recreation access routes and their related passing spaces and resting intervals shall comply with 1016.5.

1016.5.1 Concrete, Asphalt, or Boards.  Where the surface is concrete, asphalt, or boards, obstacles shall not exceed ½ inch (13 mm) in height measured vertically to the highest point.

1016.5.2 Other Surfaces.  Where the surface is other than specified in 1016.5.1, obstacles shall not exceed 1 inch (25 mm) in height measured vertically to the highest point.

Advisory 1016.5 Obstacles.  The vertical alignment of joints in concrete, asphalt, or board surfaces can be obstacles.  Natural features such as tree roots and rocks on outdoor recreation access routes can also be obstacles.  Where an outdoor recreation access route is provided within a vehicular way, traffic calming devices can be obstacles.  Where possible, obstacles on outdoor recreation access routes should be separated by a distance of 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum so persons who use wheelchairs can maneuver around the obstacles.

1016.6 Openings.  Openings in the surface of outdoor recreation access routes and their related passing spaces and resting intervals shall comply with 302.3.

Advisory 1016.6 Openings.  Spaces between the boards in a boardwalk and drainage grates are examples of openings.  Where possible, drainage grates should be located outside the minimum clear width of the outdoor recreation access route.

1016.7 Slopes.  The slopes of outdoor recreation access routes shall comply with 1016.7.

1016.7.1 Running Slope.  The running slope of any segment of an outdoor recreation access route shall not be steeper than 1:10.  Where the running slope of a segment of an outdoor recreation access route is steeper than 1:20, the maximum length of the segment shall be in accordance with Table 1016.7.1, and a resting interval complying with 1016.8 shall be provided at each end of the segment.

Table 1016.7.1 Running Slope and Resting Intervals
Running Slope of Segment of Outdoor Recreation Access RouteMaximum Length of Segment
Steeper thanBut not Steeper than
1:20 1:12 50 feet (15 m)
1:12 1:10 30 feet (9 m)

Advisory 1016.7.1 Running Slope.  Running slope can also be expressed as a percentage (grade).

1016.7.2 Cross Slope.  The cross slope shall comply with 1016.7.2.

1016.7.2.1 Concrete, Asphalt, or Boards.  Where the surface is concrete, asphalt, or boards, the cross slope shall not be steeper than 1:48.

1016.7.2.2 Other Surfaces.  Where the surface is other than specified in 1016.7.2.1, the cross slope on other surfaces shall not be steeper than 1:33.

1016.8 Resting Intervals.  Resting intervals shall comply with 1016.8.

1016.8.1 Length.  The resting interval length shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) long minimum.

1016.8.2 Width.  Where resting intervals are provided within an outdoor recreation access route, resting intervals shall be at least as wide as the widest segment of the outdoor recreation access route leading to the resting interval.  Where resting intervals are provided adjacent to an outdoor recreation access route, the resting interval clear width shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.

1016.8.3 Slope.  Resting intervals shall have a slope complying with 1016.8.3.

1016.8.3.1 Concrete, Asphalt, or Boards.  Where the surface is concrete, asphalt, or boards, the slope shall not be steeper than 1:48 in any direction.

1016.8.3.2 Other Surfaces.  Where the surface is other than specified in 1016.8.3.1, the slope on other surfaces shall not be steeper than 1:33 in any direction.

1016.8.4 Turning Space.  Where resting intervals are provided adjacent to an outdoor recreation access route, a turning space complying with 304.3.2 shall be provided.  Vertical alignment between the outdoor recreation access route, turning space, and resting interval shall be nominally planar.

1016.9 Protruding Objects.  Constructed elements on outdoor recreation access routes and their related resting intervals and passing spaces shall comply with 307.

Advisory 1016.9 Protruding Objects.  Protruding objects on outdoor recreation access routes and their related resting intervals and passing spaces can be hazardous for persons who are blind or have low vision.  Signs and other post mounted objects are examples of constructed elements that can be protruding objects.

1017 Trails

1017.1 General.  Trails shall comply with 1017.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Where an entity determines that a condition in 1019 does not permit full compliance with a specific requirement in 1017 on a portion of a trail, that portion of the trail shall comply with the specific requirement to the maximum extent feasible.  The entity shall document the basis for the determination, and shall maintain the documentation with the records for the construction or alteration project.

2.  Where an entity determines that it is impracticable for an entire trail to comply with 1017, the trail shall not be required to comply with 1017.  The entity shall document the basis for the determination, and shall maintain the documentation with the records for the construction or alteration project.

Advisory 1017.1 General Exception 1.  Exception 1 can be applied to specific requirements in 1017 on a portion of a trail where full compliance with the requirement cannot be achieved due to any of the conditions in 1019.

Advisory 1017.1 General Exception 2.  An entity should first apply Exception 1 to determine the portions of a trail where full compliance with the specific requirements in 1017 cannot be achieved.  An entity should then evaluate the entire trail, taking into account the portions of the trial that can and cannot fully comply with the requirements in 1017 and the extent of compliance where full compliance cannot be achieved to determine whether it would be impracticable for the entire trail to comply with 1017.  The determination is made on a case-by-case basis.

1017.2 Surface.  The surface of trails and their related passing spaces and resting intervals shall be firm and stable.

Advisory 1017.2 Surface.  A stable surface remains unchanged by applied force so that when the force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition.  A firm surface resists deformation by indentations.

1017.3 Clear Tread Width.  The clear tread width of trails shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.

EXCEPTION:  The clear tread width shall be permitted to be reduced to 32 inches (815 mm) minimum for a length of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum provided that reduced width segments are separated by segments that are 48 inches (1220 mm) long minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum.

1017.4 Passing Spaces.  Trails with a clear tread width less than 60 inches (1525 mm) shall provide passing spaces complying with 1017.4 at intervals of 1000 feet (300 m) maximum.  Where the full length of the trail does not comply with 1017, the last passing space shall be located at the end of the trail segment complying with 1017.  Passing spaces and resting intervals shall be permitted to overlap.

Advisory 1017.4 Passing Spaces.  Entities should consider providing either a 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum clear tread width, or passing spaces at shorter intervals if the clear tread width is less than 60 inches (1525 mm), where a trail is:

  • Heavily used;
  • A boardwalk; or
  • Not at the same level as the ground surface adjoining the trail.

Where the full length of the trail does not comply with 1017, placing the last passing space at the end of the trail segment complying with 1017 enables a person using a wheelchair to turn around and exit the trail.

1017.4.1 Size.  The passing space shall be either:

  1. A space 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum by 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum; or
  2. The intersection of two trails providing a T-shaped space complying with 304.3.2 where the base and the arms of the T-shaped space extend 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum beyond the intersection. Vertical alignment at the intersection of the trails that form the T-shaped space shall be nominally planar.

1017.5 Obstacles.  Tread obstacles on trails and their related passing spaces and resting intervals shall comply with 1017.5.

1017.5.1 Concrete, Asphalt, or Boards.  Where the surface is concrete, asphalt, or boards, tread obstacles shall not exceed ½ inch (13 mm) in height measured vertically to the highest point.

1017.5.2 Other Surfaces.  Where the surface is other than specified in 1017.4.1, tread obstacles shall not exceed 2 inches (50 mm) in height measured vertically to the highest point.

Advisory 1017.5 Tread Obstacles.  The vertical alignment of joints in concrete, asphalt, or board surfaces can be tread obstacles.  Natural features, such as tree roots and rocks, within the trail tread can also be tread obstacles.  Where possible, tread obstacles should be separated by a distance of 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum so persons who use wheelchairs can maneuver around the obstacles.

1017.6 Openings.  Openings in the surface of trails and their related passing spaces and resting intervals shall comply with 302.3.

EXCEPTION:  Openings shall be permitted to be to be a size that does not permit passage of a ¾ inch (19 mm) sphere where openings that do not permit the passage of a ½ inch (6.4 mm) sphere cannot be provided due to the conditions in 1019.

1017.7 Slopes.  The slopes of trails shall comply with 1017.7.

1017.7.1 Running Slope.  No more than 30 percent of the total length of a trail shall have a running slope steeper than 1:12. The running slope of any segment of a trail shall not be steeper than 1:8.  Where the running slope of a segment of a trail is steeper than 1:20, the maximum length of the segment shall be in accordance with Table 1017.7.1, and a resting interval complying with 1017.8 shall be provided at each end of the segment.

Table 1017.7.1 Running Slope and Resting Intervals
Running Slope of Trail SegmentMaximum Length of Segment
Steeper thanBut not Steeper than
1:20 1:12 200 feet (61 m)
1:12 1:10 30 feet (9 m)
1:10 1:8 10 feet (3050 mm)

Advisory 1017.7.1 Running Slope.  Running slope can also be expressed as a percentage (grade).

1017.7.2 Cross Slope.  The cross slope shall comply with 1017.6.2.

1017.7.2.1 Concrete, Asphalt, or Boards.  Where the surface is concrete, asphalt, or boards, the cross slope shall not be steeper than 1:48.

1017.7.2.2 Other Surfaces.  Where the surface is other than specified in 1017.7.2.1, the cross slope on other surfaces shall not be steeper than 1:20.

1017.8 Resting Intervals.  Resting intervals shall comply with 1017.8.

1017.8.1 Length.  The resting interval length shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) long minimum.

1017.8.2 Width.  Where resting intervals are provided within the trail tread, resting intervals shall be at least as wide as the widest segment of the trail tread leading to the resting interval.  Where resting intervals are provided adjacent to the trail tread, the resting interval clear width shall be 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.

1017.8.3 Slope.  Resting intervals shall have a slope complying with 1017.8.3.

1017.8.3.1 Concrete, Asphalt, or Boards. Where the surface is concrete, asphalt, or boards, the slope shall not be steeper than 1:48 in any direction.

1017.8.3.2 Other Surfaces.  Where the surface is other than specified in 1017.8.3.1, the slope on other surfaces shall not be steeper than 1:20 in any direction.

1017.8.4 Turning Space.  Where resting intervals are provided adjacent to the trail tread, a turning space complying with 304.3.2 shall be provided.  Vertical alignment between the trail tread, turning space, and resting interval shall be nominally planar.

1017.9 Protruding Objects.  Constructed elements on trails and their related resting intervals and passing spaces shall comply with 307.

Advisory 1017.9 Protruding Objects.  Protruding objects on trails and their related resting intervals and passing spaces can be hazardous for persons who are blind or have low vision.  Signs and other post mounted objects are examples of constructed elements that can be protruding objects.

1017.10 Gates and Barriers.  Where gates or barriers are constructed to control access to trails, gates and barriers shall comply with 1017.10.

1017.10.1 Clear Width.  Gate openings and openings in barriers for hiker passage shall provide a clear width complying with 404.2.3.

1017.10.2 Gate Hardware.  Gate hardware shall comply with 404.2.7.

1017.11 Trail Signs. Trail signs shall include the following information:

  1. Length of the trail or trail segment;
  2. Surface type;
  3. Typical and minimum tread width;
  4. Typical and maximum running slope; and
  5. Typical and maximum cross slope.

1018 Beach Access Routes

1018.1 General.  Beach access routes shall comply with 1018.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Where an entity determines that a condition in 1019 does not permit full compliance with a specific requirement in 1018 on a portion of a beach access route, that portion of the beach access route shall comply with the specific requirement to the maximum extent feasible. The entity shall document the basis for the determination, and shall maintain the documentation with the records for the construction or alteration project.

2.  Where an entity determines that it is impracticable to provide a beach access route complying with 1018, a beach access route shall not be required. The entity shall document the basis for the determination, and shall maintain the documentation with the records for the construction or alteration project.

3.  Removable beach access routes shall not be required to comply with 1018.7 and 1018.8.

Advisory 1018.1 General Exception 1.  Exception 1 can be applied to specific requirements in 1018 on a portion of a beach access route where full compliance with the requirement cannot be achieved due to any of the conditions in 1019.

Advisory 1018.1 General Exception 2.  An entity should first apply Exception 1 to determine the portions of a beach access route where full compliance with the specific requirements in 1018 cannot be achieved.  An entity should then evaluate the entire beach access route, taking into account the portions of the beach access route that can and cannot fully comply with the requirements in 1018 and the extent of compliance where full compliance cannot be achieved to determine whether it would be impracticable to provide a beach access route.  The determination is made on a case-by-case basis.

1018.2 Connections.  Beach access routes shall connect an entry point to the beach to the:

  1. High tide level at tidal beaches;
  2. Mean high water level at river beaches; or
  3. Normal recreation water level at lake, pond, and reservoir beaches.

1018.3 Surface.  The surface of beach access routes and their related resting intervals shall be firm and stable.

Advisory 1018.3 Surface.  A stable surface remains unchanged by applied force so that when the force is removed, the surface returns to its original condition. A firm surface resists deformation by indentations.

1018.4 Clear Width.  The clear width of beach access routes shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.

1018.5 Obstacles.  Obstacles on beach access routes and their related resting intervals shall comply with 1018.5.

1018.5.1 Concrete, Asphalt, or Boards.  Where the surface is concrete, asphalt, or boards, obstacles shall not exceed ½ inch (13 mm) in height measured vertically to the highest point.

1018.5.2 Other Surfaces.  Where the surface is other than specified in 1018.5.1, obstacles shall not exceed 1 inch (25 mm) in height measured vertically to the highest point.

Advisory 1018.5 Obstacles.  The vertical alignment of boards on a beach access route or removable sections of a beach access route can be obstacles.  Where possible, obstacles on beach access routes should be separated by a distance of 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum so persons who use wheelchairs can maneuver around the obstacles.

1018.6 Openings. Openings in the surface of beach access routes and their related resting intervals shall comply with 302.3.

1018.7 Slopes.  The slopes of beach access routes shall comply with 1018.7.

1018.7.1 Running Slope.  The running slope of any segment of a beach access route shall not be steeper than 1:10.  Where the running slope of a segment of a beach access route is steeper than 1:20, the maximum length of the segment shall be in accordance with Table 1018.7.1, and a resting interval complying with 1018.8 shall be provided at each end of the segment.

Table 1018.7.1 Running Slope and Resting Intervals
Running Slope of Trail SegmentMaximum Length of Segment
Steeper thanBut not Steeper than
1:20 1:12 50 feet (15 m)
1:12 1:10 30 feet (9 m)

Advisory 1018.7.1 Running Slope.  Running slope can also be expressed as a percentage (grade).

1018.7.2 Cross Slope.  The cross slope shall comply with 1018.7.2.

1018.7.2.1 Concrete, Asphalt, or Boards.  Where the surface is concrete, asphalt, or boards, the cross slope shall not be steeper than 1:48.

1018.7.2.2 Other Surfaces.  Where the surface is other than specified in 1018.7.2.1, the cross slope on other surfaces shall not be steeper than 1:33.

1018.8 Resting Intervals.  Resting intervals shall comply with 1018.8.

1018.8.1 Size.  Resting intervals shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) by 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.

1018.8.2 Slope.  Resting intervals shall have a slope complying with 1018.8.2.

1018.8.2.1 Concrete, Asphalt, or Boards.  Where the surface is concrete, asphalt, or boards, the slope shall not be steeper than 1:48 in any direction.

1018.8.2.2 Other Surfaces.  Where the surface is other than specified in 1018.8.2.1, the slope on other surfaces shall not be steeper than 1:33 in any direction.

1018.9 Protruding Objects.  Constructed elements on beach access routes and their related resting intervals shall comply with 307.

Advisory 1018.9 Protruding Objects.  Protruding objects on beach access routes and their related resting intervals can be hazardous for persons who are blind or have low vision.  Signs and other post mounted objects are examples of constructed elements that can be protruding objects.

1018.10 Elevated Dune Crossings.  Where elevated dune crossings are part of beach access routes, handrails complying with 505 and edge protection complying with 405.9 shall be provided on the elevated dune crossings.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  The clear width of elevated dune crossings shall be permitted to be reduced to 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum.

2.  Elevated dune crossings shall not be required to comply with 1018.8.

1019 Conditions for Exceptions

1019.1 General.  The conditions in 1019 are the basis for using the exceptions to the requirements in Chapter 10 for outdoor constructed features, tent pads and tent platforms, camp shelters, viewing areas, outdoor recreation access routes, trails, and beach access routes.

Advisory 1019.1 General.  The following exceptions in Chapter 10 permit a facility to comply with a specific requirement to the maximum extent feasible where a condition in 1019 applies:

  • Outdoor Constructed Features – 1011.2 Exception (clear ground space in alterations);
  • Tent Pads and Tent Platforms – 1013.2 Exception (clear ground space);
  • Camp Shelters – 1014.1 Exception (clear ground space);
  • Viewing Areas – 1015.1 Exception (any requirement in alterations);
  • Outdoor Recreation Access Routes – 1016.1 Exception 1 (any requirement in alterations to existing camping facilities, picnic facilities, and trailheads) and 1016.1 Exception 2 (any requirement at viewing areas);
  • Trails – 1017.1 Exception 1 (any requirement); and
  • Beach Access Routes – 1018.1 Exception 1 (any requirement).

On outdoor recreation access routes, trails, and beach access routes, the above exceptions apply only on the portion of the route where the condition applies.  The outdoor recreation access route, trail, or beach access route is required to fully comply with the requirements in Chapter 10 at all other portions of the route where the conditions do not apply.

There are additional exceptions that apply to an entire trail or beach access route in 1017.1 and 1018.1.

1019.2 Conditions. 

  1. Compliance is not feasible due to terrain.
  2. Compliance cannot be accomplished with the prevailing construction practices.
  3. Compliance would fundamentally alter the function or purpose of the facility or the setting.
  4. Compliance is precluded by the:
    • Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. §§ 1531 et seq.);
    • National Environmental Policy Act (42 U.S.C. §§ 4321 et seq.);
    • National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. §§ 470 et seq.);
    • Wilderness Act (16 U.S.C. §§ 1131 et seq.); or
    • Other Federal, State, or local law the purpose of which is to preserve threatened or endangered species; the environment; or archaeological, cultural, historical, or other significant natural features

Advisory 1019.2 Conditions.  Entities should consider all design options before determining whether the conditions in 1019.2 apply.  The laws referenced in Condition 4 can limit construction in the outdoor environment.  Condition 4 also applies where archaeological, cultural, historical, or other significant natural features are eligible for protection under Federal, State, or local law.