Chapter 4: Other Outdoor Developed Areas

4.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the provisions in the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas that apply to the construction and alteration of beach access routes, outdoor rinsing showers, designated viewing areas, warming huts, wood stoves and fireplaces, storage facilities for mobility devices, and pit toilets.

Where the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas are expected to add costs to the construction or alteration any of the outdoor developed areas described in this chapter, the Access Board requested the Federal land management agencies to identify construction and alteration projects funded in FY 2004 that involved work on the outdoor developed areas. Their responses are discussed in this chapter.

4.2 Beach Access Routes

A beach access route is a pedestrian path that crosses the beach and extends to the water. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require a beach access route to be provided when a new beach is constructed.[85] At existing beaches, the guidelines require a beach access route to be provided when a new pedestrian route is constructed from a developed site to, or along the edge of, the beach.[86] At existing beaches, the beach access route can be a permanent or temporary surface.[87] Products for providing beach access routes are commercially available, and range in cost from $2.25 to $10.00 per square foot.[88] The Federal land management agencies did not identify any projects in FY 2004 that involved the construction of new beaches, or the construction of new pedestrian routes at existing beaches.

4.3 Outdoor Rinsing Showers

Outdoor rinsing showers are generally provided at beaches to rinse off sand. They may also be provided at campgrounds. Outdoor rinsing showers are not intended for bathing, and can be open or have walls. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require outdoor rinsing showers to have clear space for a wheelchair, a grab bar, and two spray heads.[89] The guidelines also require that the operable parts be within reach ranges and meet certain operation requirements. The Forest Service identified two projects that involved the construction of outdoor rinsing showers. A project funded by the Forest Service in FY 2002 to reconstruct a campground in the Apalachicola National Forest included the installation of an outdoor rinsing shower that met the guidelines. The Forest Service reported that the accessible unit cost $600 more than an inaccessible unit. A project funded by the Forest Service in FY 2003 to reconstruct a picnic and day use area in the Shawnee National Forest included the installation of a combination shower tower and drinking fountain costing $4,000 that met the guidelines.

4.4 Designated Viewing Areas

Designated viewing areas are areas that are designed and constructed to provide an unobstructed view of a mountain range, vista or other point of interest. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require designated viewing areas to have a wheelchair turning space and to design safety barriers and guardrails so as to provide unobstructed viewing opportunities for persons seated in a wheelchair and persons of short stature.[90] The guidelines also require at least 20 percent of new telescopes and periscopes installed at a designated viewing area to have clear space for a wheelchair and to be usable from a seated position.[91] Where only one telescope or periscope is provided, the guidelines require that it also be usable from a standing position. The guidelines also require that the operable parts be within reach ranges and meet certain operation requirements. The guidelines are not expected to increase the cost of constructing or altering designated viewing areas.

4.5 Warming Huts

Warming huts are enclosed spaces used for temporary protection from the weather. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require warming huts to have a wheelchair turning space.[92] The guidelines also require warming huts that have doors to comply with the technical provisions for doors. The guidelines are not expected to increase the cost of constructing or altering warming huts.

4.6 Wood Stoves and Fireplaces

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require wood stoves and fireplaces to have clear space for a wheelchair, and the operable parts to be within reach ranges and meet certain operation requirements.[93] The guidelines are not expected to increase the cost of constructing or altering wood stoves or fireplaces.

4.7 Storage Facilities for Mobility Devices

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require facilities such as ski areas, where persons who use wheelchairs transfer from one type of mobility device to another type of mobility device (e.g., from a wheelchair to adaptive ski equipment), to provide at least one storage facility for mobility devices.[94] The guidelines also require the operable parts of the storage facilities to be within reach ranges and meet certain operation requirements. Storage facilities for mobility devices cost $875.[95] The Federal land management agencies did not identify any projects in FY 2004 that involved the construction of storage facilities at new ski areas, or the alteration of storage facilities at existing ski areas.

4.8 Pit Toilets

Pit toilets are holes that are dug in the ground and covered by a toilet bench. They are usually located in remote areas. Pit toilets can be open or have walls. The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas require pit toilets to have clear space for a wheelchair, and the toilet bench seat to be 17 inches minimum and 19 inches maximum above the ground or floor.[96] The guidelines also require pit toilets that have walls to provide grab bars. The guidelines will increase the cost of constructing and altering pit toilets that have walls due to the additional wall space needed to provide clear space for a wheelchair and the grab bars. The Federal land management agencies did not have information available on the number of pit toilets with walls that were constructed or altered on Federal lands in FY 2004, but the number is expected to be small.

4.9 Costs

The accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas are not expected to increase the cost of constructing or altering designated viewing areas, warming huts, or wood stoves and fireplaces. The provisions for beach access routes will add some costs to construction and alteration projects for beaches. However, the Federal land management agencies did not identify any projects funded in FY 2004 that included the construction of new beaches or the construction of new pedestrian routes at existing beaches, and it is likely that such projects will be rare. The provisions for outdoor rinsing showers and storage facilities for mobility devices will add less than $1,000 to project costs. Only the Forest Service identified two projects funded in FY 2004 that included the construction of outdoor rinsing showers. The other Federal land management agencies did not have data on projects that included the construction of outdoor rinsing showers or storage facilities for mobility devices. Nor did the Federal land management agencies have any data available on projects that included the construction or alteration of pit toilets with walls.

As discussed in Chapter 1, the Access Board used two baselines for this regulatory assessment. The first baseline assesses the costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas compared to the Federal land management agencies current accessibility policies and practices. The second baseline assesses the costs associated with the guidelines if accessibility were not required by the Access Board or otherwise.

The Forest Service will not incur any additional costs associated with the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas for the other elements and spaces discussed in this chapter using the first baseline because all its new construction and alteration projects are required to use FSORAG, which generally meets or exceeds the accessibility guidelines for outdoor developed areas. Since the other Federal land management agencies either did not identify any projects funded in FY 2004 that included the construction or alteration of the other elements and spaces discussed in this chapter or did not have any data available on such projects, the Access Board did not develop a model based on specific assumptions for estimating the additional costs for such projects associated with the guidelines. Rather, the Access Board assumed that in the case of the other Federal land management agencies that under both the first baseline and the second baselines the additional annual costs associated with the guidelines for the other elements and spaces discussed in this chapter will range from $0 to $50,000 for each agency. The Access Board also assumed in the case of the Forest Service that under the second baseline the additional annual costs associated with the guidelines for the other elements and spaces discussed in this chapter will range from $0 to $50,000.[97]