Chapter T4: Supplementary Technical Provisions

T401  General

T401.1  Scope.  The provisions of Chapter T4 shall apply where required by Chapter T3 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

T402  Turning Space

T402.1  Size.  Turning space shall comply with T402.1.1 or T402.1.2.

T402.1.1  Circular Space.  The turning space shall be a space of 60 inches (1525 mm) diameter minimum.  The space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with T404.2 and T404.3.

T402.1.2  T-Shaped Space.  The turning space shall be a T-shaped space within a 60 inch (1525 mm) square minimum with arms and base 36 inches (915 mm) wide minimum.  Each arm of the T shall be clear of obstructions 12 inches (305 mm) minimum in each direction and the base shall be clear of obstructions 24 inches (610 mm) minimum. The space shall be permitted to include knee and toe clearance complying with T404.2 and T404.3 only at the end of either the base or one arm.

Figure T402.1.2
T-Shaped Turning Space
The T shape space is 36 inches (915 mm) wide at the top and stem within a 60 inch by 60 inch (1525 mm by 1525 mm) square.

T402.2 Door Swing.  Doors shall be permitted to swing into turning spaces.

T403  Clear Floor or Ground Space

T403.1  Size.  The clear floor or ground space shall be 30 inches (760 mm) minimum by 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum.

Figure T403.1
Clear Floor or Ground Space
Clear floor or ground space is 30 inches by 48 inches (760 mm by 1220 mm) minimum.
T404 Knee and Toe Clearance

T404.1  General.  Where space beneath an element is included as part of clear floor or ground space or turning space, the space shall comply with T404.  Additional space shall not be prohibited beneath an element but shall not be considered as part of the clear floor or ground space or turning space.

Advisory T404.1  General.  Clearances are measured in relation to the usable clear floor space, not necessarily to the vertical support for an element.  When determining clearance under an object for required turning or turning space, care should be taken to ensure the space is clear of any obstructions.

T404.2 Toe Clearance.

T404.2.1  General.  Space under an element between the finish floor or ground and 9 inches (230 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall be considered toe clearance and shall comply with T404.2.

T404.2.2  Maximum Depth.  Toe clearance shall extend 25 inches (635 mm) maximum under an element.

T404.2.3  Minimum Required Depth.  Where toe clearance is required at an element as part of a clear floor space, the toe clearance shall extend 17 inches (430 mm) minimum under the element.

T404.2.4  Additional Clearance.  Space extending greater than 6 inches (150 mm) beyond the available knee clearance at 9 inches (230 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall not be considered toe clearance.

T404.2.5  Width.  Toe clearance shall be 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum.

Figure T404.2
Toe Clearance
(a) Elevation. Toes of a person in a wheelchair are shown extending for a maximum depth of 6 inches (150 mm) under an object that is 9 inches (230 mm) high minimum. (b) Plan. Toe clearance at an element, as part of clear floor space, shall extend 17 to 25 inches (430 to 635 mm) under the element. The clear floor space is 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum.

T404.3  Knee Clearance.

T404.3.1  General.  Space under an element between 9 inches (230 mm) and 27 inches (685 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall be considered knee clearance and shall comply with T404.3.

T404.3.2  Maximum Depth.  Knee clearance shall extend 25 inches (635 mm) maximum under an element at 9 inches (230 mm) above the finish floor or ground.

T404.3.3  Minimum Required Depth.  Where knee clearance is required under an element as part of a clear floor space, the knee clearance shall be 11 inches (280 mm) deep minimum at 9 inches (230 mm) above the finish floor or ground, and 8 inches (205 mm) deep minimum at 27 inches (685 mm) above the finish floor or ground.

T404.3.4  Clearance Reduction.  Between 9 inches (230 mm) and 27 inches (685 mm) above the finish floor or ground, the knee clearance shall be permitted to reduce at a rate of 1 inch (25 mm) in depth for each 6 inches (150 mm) in height.

T404.3.5  Width.  Knee clearance shall be 30 inches (760 mm) wide minimum.

Figure T404.3
Knee Clearance
(a) Elevation. Knee clearance is 27 inches (685 mm) high minimum above the floor or ground for a minimum depth of 8 inches (205 mm), measured from the leading edge of the element. The vertical clearance decreases beyond this depth to a height of 9 inches (230 mm) minimum at depth of 11 inches (280 mm) minimum measured from the leading edge of the element. (b) Plan. Combined knee and toe clearance can extend 25 inches (635 mm) maximum under an element.
T405 Protruding Objects

T405.1  General.  Protruding objects shall comply with T405.

T405.2  Protrusion Limits.  Objects with leading edges more than 27 inches (685 mm) and not more than 80 inches (2030 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall protrude 4 inches (100 mm) maximum horizontally into the circulation path.

EXCEPTION:  Handrails shall be permitted to protrude 4  inches (115 mm) maximum.

Figure T405.2
Limits of Protruding Objects
A frontal view shows a person using a cane walking along a wall. A wall-mounted object more than 27 inches (685 mm) from the floor protrudes no more than 4 inches (100 mm) from the wall surface. An object overhead provides vertical clearance that is greater than 80 inches (2030 mm).

T405.3 Post-Mounted Objects.  Free-standing objects mounted on posts or pylons shall overhang circulation paths 12 inches (305 mm) maximum when located 27 inches (685 mm) minimum and 80 inches (2030 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground.  Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (685 mm) maximum or 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

EXCEPTION:  The sloping portions of handrails serving stairs and ramps shall not be required to comply with T405.3.

Figure T405.3
Post-Mounted Protruding Objects
Elevation drawing (a) shows an object mounted more than 27 inches (685 mm) high on a post. The object protrudes 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the post on both sides. Elevation (b) shows signs or other obstructions mounted between posts or pylons. One object has its lowest edge mounted 27 inches (685 mm) high maximum between posts that are more than 12 inches apart. Another object is mounted with its lowest edge 80 inches (2030 mm) high minimum between posts that are more than 12 inches apart.

T405.4  Required Clear Width.  Protruding objects shall not reduce the clear width required for accessible routes.

T406 Reach Ranges

T406.1  General.  Reach ranges shall comply with T406.

Advisory T406.1  General.  The following table provides guidance on reach ranges for children according to age where building elements such as coat hooks, lockers, or operable parts are designed for use primarily by children.  These dimensions apply to either forward or side reaches.  Accessible elements and operable parts designed for adult use or children over age 12 can be located outside these ranges but must be within the adult reach ranges required by T406.
Children’s Reach Ranges
Forward or Side Reach Ages 3 and 4 Ages 5 through 8 Ages 9 through 12
High (maximum) 36 in (915 mm) 40 in (1015 mm) 44 in (1120 mm)
Low (minimum) 20 in (510 mm) 18 in (455 mm) 16 in (405 mm)

T406.2  Forward Reach.

T406.2.1  Unobstructed.  Where a forward reach is unobstructed, the high forward reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum and the low forward reach shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

Figure T406.2.1
Unobstructed Forward Reach
A side view is shown of a person suing a wheelchair reaching toward a wall. The lowest vertical reach point is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and the highest is 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum.

T406.2.2  Obstructed High Reach.  Where a high forward reach is over an obstruction, the clear floor space shall extend beneath the element for a distance not less than the required reach depth over the obstruction.  The high forward reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum where the reach depth is 20 inches (510 mm) maximum.  Where the reach depth exceeds 20 inches (510 mm), the high forward reach shall be 44 inches (1120 mm) maximum and the reach depth shall be 25 inches (635 mm) maximum.

Figure T406.2.2
Obstructed High Forward Reach
Figure (a) shows a person seated in a wheelchair reaching a point on a wall above a protrusion, such as a wall-mounted counter, which is 20 inches (510 mm) deep maximum. The maximum reach height is 48 inches (1220 mm). In figure (b), the obstruction is more than 20 inches (510 mm) deep, with 25 inches (635 mm) the maximum depth. The maximum reach height is 44 inches (1120 mm).

T406.3  Side Reach.

T406.3.1  Unobstructed.  Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the side reach is unobstructed, the high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum and the low side reach shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

EXCEPTION:  An obstruction shall be permitted between the clear floor or ground space and the element where the depth of the obstruction is 10 inches (255 mm) maximum.

Figure T406.3.1
Unobstructed Side Reach
The drawing shows a frontal view of a person using a wheelchair making a side reach to a wall. The depth of reach is 10 inches (255 mm) maximum. The vertical reach range is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum to 48 inches (1370 mm) maximum.

T406.3.2  Obstructed High Reach.  Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the high side reach is over an obstruction, the height of the obstruction shall be 34 inches (865 mm) maximum and the depth of the obstruction shall be 24 inches (610 mm) maximum.  The high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum for a reach depth of 10 inches (255 mm) maximum.  Where the reach depth exceeds 10 inches (255 mm), the high side reach shall be 46 inches (1170 mm) maximum for a reach depth of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum.

Figure T406.3.2
Obstructed High Side Reach
The drawing shows a frontal view of a person using a wheelchair making a side reach to a wall over an obstruction. The height of the obstruction is 34 inches (865 mm) maximum. (a) The vertical reach range is 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum for an obstruction that is 10 inches (255 mm) maximum in depth. (b) The vertical reach range is 46 inches (1170 mm) maximum for an obstruction with a depth that is greater than 10 inches (255 mm) and less than 24 inches (610 mm) maximum.
T407 Operable Parts

T407.1  General.  Operable parts shall comply with T407.

T407.2  Height.  Operable parts shall be placed within one or more of the reach ranges specified in T406.

T407.3  Operation.  Operable parts shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist.  The force required to activate operable parts shall be 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

T408 Doors, Doorways, and Gate

T408.1  General.  Doors, doorways, and gates shall comply with T408.

T408.2  Manual Doors, Doorways, and Manual Gates.  Manual doors and doorways and manual gates intended for user passage shall comply with T408.2.

T408.2.1  Revolving Doors, Gates, and Turnstiles.  Revolving doors, revolving gates, and turnstiles shall not be part of an accessible route.

T408.2.2  Double-Leaf Doors and Gates.  At least one of the active leaves of doorways with two leaves shall comply with T408.2.3 and T408.2.4.

T408.2.3  Clear Width.  Door openings shall provide a clear width of 32 inches (815 mm) minimum.  Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees.  Openings more than 24 inches (610 mm) deep shall provide a clear opening of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum.  There shall be no projections into the required clear opening width lower than 34 inches (865 mm) above the finish floor or ground.  Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (865 mm) and 80 inches (2030 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (100 mm).

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  In alterations, a projection of 5/8 inch (16 mm) maximum into the required clear width shall be permitted for the latch side stop.

2.  Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

Figure T408.2.3
Clear Width of Doorways
Figure (a) shows in plan view a hinged door open 90 degrees with a clear opening width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum, measured from the face of the door to the opposite stop. Figure (b) shows an open sliding door with a clear opening width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum. Figure (c) shows an open folding door with a clear opening width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum.

T408.2.4 Maneuvering Clearances.  Minimum maneuvering clearances at doors and gates shall comply with T408.2.4.  Maneuvering clearances shall extend the full width of the doorway and the required latch side or hinge side clearance.

T408.2.4.1  Swinging Doors and Gates.  Swinging doors and gates shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table T408.2.4.1.

T408.2.4.1 Maneuvering Clearances at Manual Swinging Doors and Gates
Type of Use Minimum Maneuvering Clearance
Approach Direction Door or Gate Side Perpendicular to Doorway Parallel to Doorway (beyond latch side unless noted)
From front Pull 60 inches (1525 mm) 18 inches (455 mm)
From front Push 48 inches (1220 mm) 0 inches (0 mm)1
From hinge side Pull 60 inches (1525 mm) 36 inches (915 mm)
From hinge side Pull 54 inches (1370 mm) 42 inches (1065 mm)
From hinge side Push 42 inches (1065 mm)2 22 inches (560 mm)3
From latch side Pull 48 inches (1220 mm)4 24 inches (610 mm)
From latch side Push 42 inches (1065 mm)4 24 inches (610 mm)
1.  Add 12 inches (305 mm) if closer and latch are provided.
2.  Add 6 inches (150 mm) if closer and latch are provided.
3.  Beyond hinge side.
4.  Add 6 inches (150 mm) if closer is provided.
Figure T408.2.4.1
Maneuvering Clearances at Manual Swinging Doors and Gates
(a) front approach, pull side. Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 18 inches (455 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway. (b) front approach, push side. On the push side of doors not equipped with a closer or latch, the maneuvering space is the same width as the door opening and extends 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway. (c) front approach, push side, door provided with both closer and latch. At doors equipped with both a closer and a latch, the maneuvering space extends 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway. (d) hinge approach, pull side. Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 36 inches (915 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway. (e) hinge approach, pull side. If this space extends 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door, it can extend 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway. (f) hinge approach, push side. On the push side, maneuvering space extends 22 inches (560 mm) from the hinge side of the doorway and 42 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway at doors that do not have both a closer and a latch.
Figure T408.2.4.1 (continued)
Maneuvering Clearances at Manual Swinging Doors and Gates
(g) hinge approach, push side, door proved with both closer and latch. On the push side, maneuvering space extends 22 inches (560 mm) from the hinge side of the doorway and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway at doors with both a closer and a latch. (h) latch approach, pull side. Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 24 inches (610 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway. (i) latch approach, pull side, door provided with closer. Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 24 inches (610 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway. (j) latch approach, push side On the push side, maneuvering space extends 24 inches (560 mm) from the latch side of the doorway and 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway at doors that do not have both a closer and a latch. (k) latch approach, push side, door provided with closer. On the push side, maneuvering space extends 24 inches (560 mm) from the latch side of the doorway and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway if the door has both a closer and a latch.

T408.2.4.2  Doorways without Doors or Gates, Sliding Doors, and Folding Doors.  Doorways less than 36 inches (915 mm) wide without doors or gates, sliding doors, or folding doors shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table T408.2.4.2.

T408.2.4.2 Maneuvering Clearances at Doorways without Doors or Gates, Manual Sliding Doors, and Manual Folding Doors
  Minimum Maneuvering Clearance
Approach Direction Perpendicular to Doorway Parallel to Doorway (beyond stop/latch side unless noted)
From Front 48 inches (1220 mm) 0 inches (0 mm)
From side1 42 inches (1065 mm) 0 inches (0 mm)
From pocket/hinge side 42 inches (1065 mm) 22 inches (560 mm)2
From stop/latch side 42 inches (1065 mm) 24 inches (610 mm)
1.  Doorway with no door only.
2.  Beyond pocket/hinge side.
Figure T408.2.4.2
Maneuvering Clearances at Doorways without Doors, Sliding Doors, Gates, and Folding Doors
Figure (a) shows a front approach to a sliding or folding (accordion) door. Maneuvering clearance is as wide as the door opening and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the opening. Figure (b) shows a doorway without a door. For a side approach, maneuvering clearance is as wide as the doorway and 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway. Figure (c) shows a pocket or hinge approach. Maneuvering clearance extends 22 inches (560 mm) from the pocket or hinge side and is 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway. Figure (d) shows a stop or latch approach. Maneuvering clearance extends 24 inches (610 mm) from the stop or latch side and is 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.

T408.2.4.3  Recessed Doors and Gates.  Maneuvering clearances for forward approach shall be provided when any obstruction within 18 inches (455 mm) of the latch side of a doorway projects more than 8 inches (205 mm) beyond the face of the door, measured perpendicular to the face of the door or gate.

Figure T408.2.4.3
Maneuvering Clearances at Recessed Doors and Gates
Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 18 inches (455 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the plane of the doorway. On the push side of doors not equipped with a closer or latch, the maneuvering space is the same width as the door opening and extends 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the plane of the doorway. At doors equipped with both a closer and a latch, the maneuvering space extends 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum measured perpendicular to the plane of the doorway.

T408.2.4.4 Floor or Ground Surface.  Floor or ground surface within required maneuvering clearances shall be stable and firm.  Changes in level are not permitted.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

2.  Changes in level at thresholds complying with T408.2.5 shall be permitted.

T408.2.5 Thresholds.  Thresholds, if provided at doorways, shall be inch (13 mm) high maximum.  Raised thresholds and changes in level at doorways shall comply with T402 and T303.

EXCEPTION:  Existing or altered thresholds inch (19 mm) high maximum that have a beveled edge on each side with a slope not steeper than 1:2 shall not be required to comply with T408.2.5.

T408.2.6 Doors in Series and Gates in Series.  The distance between two hinged or pivoted doors in series and gates in series shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum plus the width of doors or gates swinging into the space.

Figure T408.2.6
Doors in Series and Gates in Series
Figure (a) shows two doors in series which swing in the same direction. Space between the doors must be at least 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum plus the width of the in-swinging door. Figure (b) shows two doors in series which swing away from the space between the doors. The space separating the doors must be at least 48 inches (1220 mm) long. Figure (c) shows two doors in series which both swing into the space between the doors. The space separating the doors must be at least 48 inches (1220 mm) wide when both doors are open.

T408.2.7 Door and Gate Hardware.  Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operable parts on doors and gates shall comply with T407.3.  Operable parts of such hardware shall be 34 inches (865 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground.  Where sliding doors are in the fully open position, operating hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Existing locks shall be permitted in any location at existing glazed doors without stiles, existing overhead rolling doors or grilles, and similar existing doors or grilles that are designed with locks that are activated only at the top or bottom rail.

2.  Access gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas, and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground provided the self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices and operated by means of a key, electronic opener, or integral combination lock.

Advisory T408.2.7  Door and Gate Hardware.  Door hardware that can be operated with a closed fist or a loose grip accommodates the greatest range of users.  Hardware that requires simultaneous hand and finger movements require greater dexterity and coordination, and is not recommended.

T408.2.8  Closing Speed.  Door and gate closing speed shall comply with T408.2.8.

T408.2.8.1  Door Closers and Gate Closers.  Door closers and gate closers shall be adjusted so that from an open position of 90 degrees, the time required to move the door to a position of 12 degrees from the latch is 5 seconds minimum.

T408.2.8.2  Spring Hinges.  Door and gate spring hinges shall be adjusted so that from the open position of 70 degrees, the door or gate shall move to the closed position in 1.5 seconds minimum.

T408.2.9  Door and Gate Opening Force.  Fire doors shall have a minimum opening force allowable by the appropriate administrative authority.  The force for pushing or pulling open a door or gate other than fire doors shall be as follows:

1.  Interior hinged doors and gates:  5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

2.  Sliding or folding doors:  5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door or gate in a closed position.

Advisory T408.2.9  Door and Gate Opening Force.  The maximum force pertains to the continuous application of force necessary to fully open a door, not the initial force needed to overcome the inertia of the door.  It does not apply to the force required to retract bolts or to disengage other devices used to keep the door in a closed position.

T408.2.10  Door and Gate Surfaces.  Swinging door and gate surfaces within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground measured vertically shall have a smooth surface on the push side extending the full width of the door or gate.  Parts creating horizontal or vertical joints in these surfaces shall be within 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) of the same plane as the other.  Cavities created by added kick plates shall be capped.

EXCEPTIONS:  1.  Sliding doors shall not be required to comply with 408.2.10.

2.  Tempered glass doors without stiles and having a bottom rail or shoe with the top leading edge tapered at 60 degrees minimum from the horizontal shall not be required to meet the 10 inch (255 mm) bottom smooth surface height requirement.

3.  Doors and gates that do not extend to within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground shall not be required to comply with T408.2.10.

4.  Existing doors and gates without smooth surfaces within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground shall not be required to provide smooth surfaces complying with T408.2.10 provided that if added kick plates are installed, cavities created by such kick plates are capped.

T408.2.11  Vision Lights.  Doors, gates, and side lights adjacent to doors or gates, containing one or more glazing panels that permit viewing through the panels shall have the bottom of at least one glazed panel located 43 inches (1090 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

EXCEPTION:  Vision lights with the lowest part more than 66 inches (1675 mm) from the finish floor or ground shall not be required to comply with T408.2.11.

T409 Pit Toilets

T409.1  General.  Pit toilets shall comply with T409.2 through T409.6.  Where doors are provided, they shall comply with T407.

T409.2  Location.  The pit toilet shall be positioned with a wall or partition to the rear and to one side.  The centerline of the pit toilet shall be 16 inches (405 mm) minimum to 18 inches (455 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition.  Pit toilets shall be arranged for a left-hand or right-hand approach.

Figure T409.2
Pit Toilet Location
Figure shows a wheelchair accessible water closet, with space on one side. The water closet centerline is shown to be 16 to 18 inches (405 to 455 mm) from the side wall.

T409.3 Clearance.  Clearances around pit toilet and in pit toilet compartments shall comply with T409.3.

T409.3.1 Size.  Clearance around a pit toilet shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the side wall and 56 inches (1420 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall.

Figure T409.3.1
Size of Clearance at Pit Toilets
The clearance around a water closet is shown in plan view to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and 56 inches (1420 mm) deep minimum.

T409.3.2  Overlap.  The required clearance around the pit toilet shall be permitted to overlap the pit toilet, associated grab bars, dispensers, sanitary napkin disposal units, coat hooks, shelves, outdoor recreation access routes, clear floor space and clearances required at other fixtures, and the turning space.  No other fixtures or obstructions shall be located within the required pit toilet clearance.

Advisory T409.3.2  Overlap.  When the door to the pit toilet compartment is placed directly in front of the pit toilet, the pit toilet cannot overlap the required maneuvering clearance for the door inside the room.

T409.4  Seats.  The seat height of a pit toilet above the finish floor shall be 17 inches (430 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum measured to the top of the seat.  Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position.

T409.5 Pit Toilets with Walls – Grab Bars.  Where pit toilets are designed with walls, grab bars complying with T409.5 shall be provided.  Grab bars shall be provided on the side wall closest to the pit toilet and on the rear wall.

T409.5.1  Side Wall.  The side wall grab bar shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) long minimum, located 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear wall and extending 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum from the rear wall.

Figure T409.5.1
Side Wall Grab Bar at Pit Toilets
Elevation drawing shows the side wall grab bar to be 42 inches (1065) long minimum, located 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear wall and extending 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum from the rear wall.

T409.5.2  Rear Wall.  The rear wall grab bar shall be 36 inches (915 mm) long minimum and extend from the centerline of the pit toilet 12 inches (305 mm) minimum on one side and 24 inches (610 mm) minimum on the other side.

EXCEPTION:  The rear grab bar shall be permitted to be 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum, centered on the pit toilet, where wall space does not permit a length of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum due to the location of a recessed fixture adjacent to the pit toilet.

Figure T409.5.2
Rear Wall Grab Bar at Pit Toilets
Elevation drawing shows the rear grab bar 36 inches (915 mm) long minimum, positioned so that 24 inches (610 mm) minimum extends toward the open transfer side and 12 inches (305 mm) minimum extends toward the side wall.
T410  Shower Spray Unit

T410.1  Shower Spray Unit.  A shower spray unit with a hose 59 inches (1500 mm) long minimum that can be used both as a fixed-position shower head and as a hand-held shower shall be provided.  The shower spray unit shall have an on/off control with a non-positive shut-off.  If an adjustable-height shower head on a vertical bar is used, the bar shall be installed so as not to obstruct the use of grab bars.

Advisory T410.1  Shower Spray Unit.  Ensure that hand-held shower spray units are capable of delivering water pressure substantially equivalent to fixed shower heads.
T411 Grab Bar

T411.1  General.  Grab bars in pit toilets and outdoor rinsing showers shall comply with T411.

T411.2  Cross Section.  Grab bars shall have a cross section complying with T411.2.1 or T411.2.2.

T411.2.1  Circular Cross Section.  Grab bars with circular cross sections shall have an outside diameter of 1¼ inches (32 mm) minimum and 2 inches (51 mm) maximum.

T411.2.2  Non-Circular Cross Section.  Grab bars with non-circular cross sections shall have a cross-section dimension of 2 inches (51 mm) maximum and a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (100 mm) minimum and 4.8 inches (120 mm) maximum.

Figure T411.2.2
Grab Bar Non-Circular Cross Section
Figure (a) shows a handrail with an approximately square cross section and figure (c) shows an elliptical cross section. The largest cross section dimension is 2 inches (51 mm) maximum. The perimeter dimension must be 4 to 4.8 inches (100 to 120 mm).

T411.3  Spacing.  The space between the wall and the grab bar shall be 1  inches (38 mm).  The space between the grab bar and projecting objects below and at the ends shall be 1  inches (38 mm) minimum.  The space between the grab bar and projecting objects above shall be 12 inches (305 mm) minimum.

EXCEPTION:  The space between the grab bars and shower controls, shower fittings, and other grab bars above shall be permitted to be 1  inches (38 mm) minimum.

Figure T411.3
Spacing of Grab Bars
A grab bar is shown with a projecting object mounted above and below it. Projecting objects must spaced 1.5 inch (38 mm) minimum below and 12 inches (305 mm) minimum above the grab bar. Recessed objects can be spaced immediately above and below.

T411.4  Position of Grab Bars for Pit Toilets.  Grab bars shall be installed in a horizontal position, 33 inches (840 mm) minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor measured to the top of the gripping surface.

T411.5  Surface Hazards.  Grab bars and any wall or other surfaces adjacent to grab bars shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements and shall have rounded edges.

T411.6  Fittings.  Grab bars shall not rotate within their fittings.

T411.7  Installation.  Grab bars shall be installed in any manner that provides a gripping surface at the specified locations and that does not obstruct the required clear floor space.

T411.8  Structural Strength.  Allowable stresses shall not be exceeded for materials used when a vertical or horizontal force of 250 pounds (1112 N) is applied at any point on the grab bar, fastener, mounting device, or supporting structure.

T412  Symbol of Accessibility

T412.1  General.  Symbols of accessibility shall comply with T412.

T412.2  Finish and Contrast.  Symbols of accessibility and their background shall have a non-glare finish.  Symbols of accessibility shall contrast with their background with either a light symbol on a dark background or a dark symbol on a light background.

Advisory T412.2  Finish and Contrast.  Signs are more legible for persons with low vision when characters contrast as much as possible with their background.  Additional factors affecting the ease with which the text can be distinguished from its background include shadows cast by lighting sources, surface glare, and the uniformity of the text and background colors and textures.

T412.3  Symbol

T412.3.1  International Symbol of Accessibility.  The International Symbol of Accessibility shall comply with Figure T412.3.1.

Figure T412.3.1
International Symbol of Accessibility
Pictogram that shows the simplified profile of a person seated in a wheelchair.