Notes

1. The Access Board consists of 25 members. Thirteen are appointed by the President from among the public, a majority of who are required to be individuals with disabilities. The other twelve are heads of the following Federal agencies or their designees whose positions are Executive Level IV or above: The departments of Health and Human Services, Education, Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, Labor, Interior, Defense, Justice, Veteran Affairs and Commerce; General Services Administration; and United States Postal Service.

2. ADAAG 13 is reserved for residential housing and ADAAG 14 is reserved for public rights-of-way.

3. Apartment buildings, mobile home parks, rooming houses, and other private dwellings are not included in this assessment because they are not covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Amusement and theme parks also are not included in this assessment because the final guidelines exempt amusement attractions in those facilities from the play area guidelines, except for soft contained play structures. The guidelines are not expected to result in additional costs for soft contained play structures and, therefore, those play areas are not considered in this chapter.

4. This assessment uses information from the static firm size data set. The static data presents a "snapshot" of each business category at a specific point in time, typically March of a given year. As a result, the data set includes establishments with zero employment in March, while annual payroll is recorded for the entire year. New firms and seasonal employment are included in this data set and show up in the zero employment size category. Information from the dynamic data set, which excludes establishments with zero employment in March, is not representative for purposes of this assessment.

5. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Soft Contained Playground Equipment Report, March 1996.

6. Woodall Publication Corp., Woodall's 1999 North American Campground Directory, Lake Forrest, Illinois. http://www.woodalls.com.

7. National Center for Education Statistics, The Digest of Education Statistics 1997, Table 89 -Public School Districts and Public and Private Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1929-30 to 1995-96. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/Digest97 Accessed 10/20/1999.

8. National Center for Education Statistics, Projection of Education Statistics to 2007, Chapter 1: Elementary and Secondary Enrollment, 1997. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/pj Accessed 10/20/1999.

9. Abramson, Paul. 1999 School Planning & Management Construction Report, School Planning & Management. http://www.spmmag.com/construction/Construction 1999 Accessed 6/28/1999.

10. National Center for Education Statistics, The Digest of Education Statistics 1997, Table 62 -Private Elementary and Secondary Enrollment and Schools: 1993-94. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/Digest97 Accessed 10/20/1999.

11. National Center for Education Statistics, Projection of Education Statistics to 2007, Chapter 1: Elementary and Secondary Enrollment, 1997. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/pj Accessed 6/28/1999.

12. The final guidelines exempt family, home-based, child care facilities and, therefore, those facilities are not included in this assessment.

13. The Children's Foundation, 1999 Child Care Center Licensing Study, Washington, D.C.

14. National Association of State Outdoor Recreation Liaison Officers. Estimates by each State are based on 50 Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans. Data compiled by Bureau of Planning, Green Acres Program, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, April, 1986.

15. Colorado Department of Natural Resources, http://www.dnr.state.co.us/parks. Accessed 11/3/1999. New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historical Preservation. http://nysparks.state.ny.us Accessed 11/3/1999.

16. Letters from the Department of the Interior to Ms. Judith Schmidth-Lehman, Assistant City Attorney, Green Bay, Wisconsin, November 29, 1993 and June 24, 1994. Letter from the Department of Education to Waldeman Rojas, Superintendent, San Francisco Unified School District, November 26, 1995.

17. Department of Justice, Americans with Disabilities Act Title II Technical Assistance Manual, 1994 Supplement, p. 4.

18. The model play areas and cost estimates in this section were developed by Kevin Owens.

19. The rubber surface was designed to be as uninterrupted as possible to avoid potential tripping hazards.

20. Although the top of the climber can be reached by the transfer system, the base of the climber is not located on an accessible route when a combination of loose fill and a rubber surface (option 2) is used. The base of the climber would be located on an accessible route when an engineered wood fiber surface (option 1) is used.

21. Ground level play components items 9 through 14 are in a separate play area for children under 2 years of age and are not covered by the guidelines.

22. Neither of the imaginative play item nor the sand and water table contain elevated designated play surfaces, as defined in the ASTM F1487 standard, which would require a use zone, and thus those items do not have to be located over impact attenuating material.

23. Installation is estimated at 20% to 40% of equipment cost.

24. Surfacing costs include installation, loose fill, drainage, and border material.

25. Surfacing costs include installation, engineered wood fiber, drainage, and border material.

26. Surfacing costs include installation, loose fill, rubber material, underlayment, border material, and transition details between dissimilar materials.

27. There is a roof over the 60 inch level.

28. Installation is estimated at 20% to 40% of installation.

29. Surfacing costs include installation, engineered wood fiber, drainage, and border material.

30. Surfacing costs include installation, loose fill, rubber material, underlayment, border material, and transition details between dissimilar materials.

31. Additional cost is for transfer stair between the 36 inch and 48 inch levels, associated support posts, one barrier, and one deck.

32. No change is needed to engineered wood fiber surface to reach the transfer system or base of climber 5.

33. Additional rubber material is needed to extend accessible route around fine motor skill activity 11 and to the base of climber 5.

34. Additional cost is for fine motor skill activity 11 and associated support posts.

35. Additional engineered wood fiber and border materials are needed because the use zone is enlarged with the addition of fine motor skill activity 11.

36. Additional rubber material is needed to extend the accessible route at entrance to the play area because use zone enlarged by addition of fine motor skill activity 11, and to extend the accessible route to spring rockers 12 and 13 and swings 14.

37. In the ASTM F 1487 standard, there is an exemption to the normal 6 feet use zone at the entrance point of a ramp, which allows the accessible route to meet the ramp entrance without the use of impact attenuating surfacing.

38. Installation is estimated at 20% to 40% of equipment cost.

39. Surfacing costs include installation, engineered wood fiber, drainage, and border material.

40. Surfacing costs include installation, loose fill, rubber material, underlayment, border material, and transition details between dissimilar materials.

41. Additional cost is for berm, ramp, and deck extension, minus the cost of equipment removed to make the modular system workout from the baseline design to the guidelines design.

42. 94 square feet of engineered wood fiber and its associated border material must be added.

43. 94 square feet of loose fill and its associated border material must be added.

44. No additional cost is expected because, in this particular design, efficient placement of the transfer system near a connecting play component such as a bridge that connects two decks of the same level, provides several locations for play activities at the same level, allowing 25% of the elevated play components to be reached by the transfer system.

45. Additional cost is from fine motor skill activity 22 and gross motor skill activity 23, and associated support posts.

46. Additional cost to provide accessible route to swings 25, spring rocker 26, and slide 28.

47. Letter from Mr. Robert Heath, President, Fibar, Inc., to Ms. Peggy Greenwell, Accessibility Specialist, Access Board, regarding the recommended maintenance schedule and activities necessary to ensure the playground surface complies with ASTM F 1951 for engineered wood fiber surfacing. Dated October 21, 1999

48. Letter from Mr. Ted Illjes, Research and Development, Zeager Bros. Inc., to Ms. Peggy Greenwell, Accessibility Specialist, Access Board, regarding the recommended maintenance and installation instructions for engineered wood fiber surfacing. Dated October 11, 1999.

49. Henderson, Walter. Catching Kids When They Fall: Guidelines to Choosing a Playground Surface, Parks & Recreation, April 1997, pp. 84-92. (Hereinafter referred to as "Parks & Recreation Article.")

50. Bureau of the Census, Americans with Disabilities: 1994-95 - Table 2. http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/disable/sipp/disab9495. Accessed 10/21/1999. The demographic breakdown provided does not allow for an exact measure of children ages 2 to 12.

51. Frost, Joe L. (1992), Play and Playscapes. Albany, New York: Delmar Publishers Inc.

52. Wortham, Sue C. and Joe L. Frost (1990), Playground for Young Children: National Survey and Perspectives, Reston, Virginia: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.

53. Senda, Mitsuru (1992), Design of Children's Play Environments. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

54.Holme, Anthea and Peter Massie (1970), Children's Play: A Study of Needs and Opportunities. New York: Humanities Press.