Chapter 5: General Site and Building Elements

New ADAAGDOJ Standards for Accessible DesignInternational Building Code

CHAPTER 5: GENERAL SITE AND BUILDING ELEMENTS

ANSI Chapter 5. General Site and Building Elements

501 General

ANSI 501 General

501.1 Scope. The provisions of Chapter 5 shall apply where required by Chapter 2 or where referenced by a requirement in this document.

ANSI 501.1 Scope. General site and building elements required to be accessible by the scoping provisions adopted by the administrative authority shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 5.

502 Parking Spaces

4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading Zones.

ANSI 502 Parking Spaces

4.6.1 Minimum Number. Parking spaces required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.6.2 through 4.6.5. Passenger loading zones required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.6.5 and 4.6.6.

502.1 General. Car and van parking spaces shall comply with 502. Where parking spaces are marked with lines, width measurements of parking spaces and access aisles shall be made from the centerline of the markings.

EXCEPTION: Where parking spaces or access aisles are not adjacent to another parking space or access aisle, measurements shall be permitted to include the full width of the line defining the parking space or access aisle.

ANSI 502.1 General. Accessible car and van parking spaces shall comply with Section 502.

ANSI 502.3 Vehicle Space Marking. Car and van parking spaces shall be marked to define the width. Where parking spaces are marked with lines, the width measurements of parking spaces and adjacent access aisles shall be made from the centerline of the markings.

EXCEPTION: Where parking spaces or access aisles are not adjacent to another parking space or access aisle, measurements shall be permitted to include the full width of the line defining the parking space or access aisle.

502.2 Vehicle Spaces. Car parking spaces shall be 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum and van parking spaces shall be 132 inches (3350 mm) wide minimum, shall be marked to define the width, and shall have an adjacent access aisle complying with 502.3.

EXCEPTION: Van parking spaces shall be permitted to be 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum where the access aisle is 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum.

4.6.3 Parking Spaces. Accessible parking spaces shall be at least 96 in (2440 mm) wide. Parking access aisles shall be part of an accessible route to the building or facility entrance and shall comply with 4.3. Two accessible parking spaces may share a common access aisle (see Fig. 9). Parked vehicle overhangs shall not reduce the clear width of an accessible route. Parking spaces and access aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all directions.

4.1.2(5)(b) EXCEPTION: Provision of all required parking spaces in conformance with "Universal Parking Design" (see appendix A4.6.3) is permitted.

A4.6.3 Parking Spaces. . . . Universal Parking Space Design. . . . Under this design, all accessible spaces are 132 in (3350 mm) wide with a 60 in (1525 mm) access aisle (see Fig. A5(b)).

NOTE: Figure 9 indicates the access aisle shall be a minimum of 60 inches (1525 mm) wide for cars or a minimum of 96 inches (2440 mm) wide for vans. The accessible route connected to the access aisle at the front of the parking spaces shall be a minimum of 36 inches (915 mm).

ANSI 502.2 Vehicle Space Size. Car parking spaces shall be 96 inches (2440 mm) minimum in width. Van parking spaces shall be 132 inches (3350 mm) minimum in width.

EXCEPTION: Van parking spaces shall be permitted to be 96 inches (2440 mm) minimum in width where the adjacent access aisle is 96 inches (2440 mm) minimum in width.

502.3 Access Aisle. Access aisles serving parking spaces shall comply with 502.3. Access aisles shall adjoin an accessible route. Two parking spaces shall be permitted to share a common access aisle.

ANSI 502.4 Access Aisle. Car and van parking spaces shall have an adjacent access aisle complying with Section 502.4.

502.3.1 Width. Access aisles serving car and van parking spaces shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum.

4.1.2(5)(a) Except as provided in (b), access aisles adjacent to accessible spaces shall be 60 in (1525 mm) wide minimum.

ANSI 502.4.2 Width. Access aisles serving car and van parking spaces shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum in width.

502.3.2 Length. Access aisles shall extend the full length of the parking spaces they serve.

ANSI 502.4.3 Length. Access aisles shall extend the full length of the parking spaces they serve.

502.3.3 Marking. Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

ANSI 502.4.4 Marking. Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them. Where access aisles are marked with lines, the width measurements of access aisles and adjacent parking spaces shall be made from the centerline of the markings.

EXCEPTION: Where access aisles or parking spaces are not adjacent to another access aisle or parking space, measurements shall be permitted to include the full width of the line defining the access aisle or parking space.

502.3.4 Location. Access aisles shall not overlap the vehicular way. Access aisles shall be permitted to be placed on either side of the parking space except for angled van parking spaces which shall have access aisles located on the passenger side of the parking spaces.

ANSI 502.4.1 Location. Access aisles shall adjoin an accessible route. Two parking spaces shall be permitted to share a common access aisle. Access aisles shall not overlap with the vehicular way. Parking spaces shall be permitted to have access aisles placed on either side of the car or van parking space. Van parking spaces that are angled shall have access aisles located on the passenger side of the parking space.

502.4 Floor or Ground Surfaces. Parking spaces and access aisles serving them shall comply with 302. Access aisles shall be at the same level as the parking spaces they serve. Changes in level are not permitted.

EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

4.6.3 Parking Spaces. Accessible parking spaces shall be at least 96 in (2440 mm) wide. Parking access aisles shall be part of an accessible route to the building or facility entrance and shall comply with 4.3. Two accessible parking spaces may share a common access aisle (see Fig. 9). Parked vehicle overhangs shall not reduce the clear width of an accessible route. Parking spaces and access aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all directions.

ANSI 502.5 Floor Surfaces. Parking spaces and access aisles shall comply with Section 302 and have surface slopes not steeper than 1:48. Access aisles shall be at the same level as the parking spaces they serve.

502.5 Vertical Clearance. Parking spaces for vans and access aisles and vehicular routes serving them shall provide a vertical clearance of 98 inches (2490 mm) minimum.

4.6.5 Vertical Clearance. Provide minimum vertical clearance of 114 in (2895 mm) at accessible passenger loading zones and along at least one vehicle access route to such areas from site entrance(s) and exit(s). At parking spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b), provide minimum vertical clearance of 98 in (2490 mm) at the parking space and along at least one vehicle access route to such spaces from site entrance(s) and exit(s).

ANSI 502.6 Vertical Clearance. Parking spaces for vans, access aisles serving them, and vehicular routes from an entrance to the van parking spaces, and from the van parking spaces to a vehicular exit serving them shall provide a vertical clearance of 98 inches (2490 mm) minimum.

502.6 Identification. Parking space identification signs shall include the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with 703.7.2.1. Signs identifying van parking spaces shall contain the designation "van accessible." Signs shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground surface measured to the bottom of the sign.

4.6.4 Signage. Accessible parking spaces shall be designated as reserved by a sign showing the symbol of accessibility (see 4.30.7). Spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b) shall have an additional sign "Van-Accessible" mounted below the symbol of accessibility. Such signs shall be located so they cannot be obscured by a vehicle parked in the space.

ANSI 502.7 Identification. Where accessible parking spaces are required to be identified by signs, the signs shall include the International Symbol of Accessibility complying with Section 703.6.3.1. Signs identifying van parking spaces shall contain the designation “van accessible.” Such signs shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum above the floor of the parking space, measured to the bottom of the sign.

502.7 Relationship to Accessible Routes. Parking spaces and access aisles shall be designed so that cars and vans, when parked, cannot obstruct the required clear width of adjacent accessible routes.

4.6.3 Parking Spaces. Accessible parking spaces shall be at least 96 in (2440 mm) wide. Parking access aisles shall be part of an accessible route to the building or facility entrance and shall comply with 4.3. Two accessible parking spaces may share a common access aisle (see Fig. 9). Parked vehicle overhangs shall not reduce the clear width of an accessible route. Parking spaces and access aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all directions.

ANSI 502.8 Relationship to Accessible Routes. Parking spaces and access aisles shall be designed so that cars and vans, when parked, cannot obstruct the required clear width of adjacent accessible routes.

503 Passenger Loading Zones

4.6.6 Passenger Loading Zones. Passenger loading zones shall provide an access aisle at least 60 in (1525 mm) wide and 20 ft (240 in) (6100 mm) long adjacent and parallel to the vehicle pull-up space (see Fig. 10). If there are curbs between the access aisle and the vehicle pull-up space, then a curb ramp complying with 4.7 shall be provided. Vehicle standing spaces and access aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all directions.

NOTE:  Figure 10 indicates an access aisle is required at a passenger loading zone which is 240 inches (6100 mm) minimum, measured parallel to the vehicle pull-up area, and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum, measured perpendicular to the vehicle area. This aisle must be clear of obstructions and at the same level as the vehicle area.

ANSI 503 Passenger Loading Zones

503.1 General. Passenger loading zones shall comply with 503.

ANSI 503.1 General. Accessible passenger loading zones shall comply with Section 503.

503.2 Vehicle Pull-Up Space. Passenger loading zones shall provide a vehicular pull-up space 96 inches (2440 mm) wide minimum and 20 feet (6100 mm) long minimum.

ANSI 503.2 Vehicle Pull–up Space Size. Passenger loading zones shall provide a vehicular pull–up space 96 inches (2440 mm) minimum in width and 20 feet (6100 mm) minimum in length.

503.3 Access Aisle. Passenger loading zones shall provide access aisles complying with 503 adjacent to the vehicle pull-up space. Access aisles shall adjoin an accessible route and shall not overlap the vehicular way.

ANSI 503.3 Access Aisle. Passenger loading zones shall have an adjacent access aisle complying with Section 503.3.

ANSI 503.3.1 Location. Access aisles shall adjoin an accessible route. Access aisles shall not overlap the vehicular way.

503.3.1 Width. Access aisles serving vehicle pull-up spaces shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum.

ANSI 503.3.2 Width. Access aisles serving vehicle pull–up spaces shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum in width.

503.3.2 Length. Access aisles shall extend the full length of the vehicle pull-up spaces they serve.

ANSI 503.3.3 Length. Access aisles shall be 20 feet (6100 mm) minimum in length.

503.3.3 Marking. Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

ANSI 503.3.4 Marking. Access aisles shall be marked so as to discourage parking in them.

503.4 Floor and Ground Surfaces. Vehicle pull-up spaces and access aisles serving them shall comply with 302. Access aisles shall be at the same level as the vehicle pull-up space they serve. Changes in level are not permitted.

EXCEPTION: Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

ANSI 503.4 Floor Surfaces. Vehicle pull–up spaces and access aisles serving them shall comply with Section 302 and shall have slopes not steeper than 1:48. Access aisles shall be at the same level as the vehicle pull–up space they serve.

503.5 Vertical Clearance. Vehicle pull-up spaces, access aisles serving them, and a vehicular route from an entrance to the passenger loading zone, and from the passenger loading zone to a vehicular exit shall provide a vertical clearance of 114 inches (2895 mm) minimum.

ANSI 503.5 Vertical Clearance. Vehicle pull–up spaces, access aisles serving them, and a vehicular route from an entrance to the passenger loading zone, and from the passenger loading zone to a vehicular exit serving them, shall provide a vertical clearance of 114 inches (2895 mm) minimum.

504 Stairways

4.9 Stairs.

IBC SECTION 1009 STAIRWAYS AND HANDRAILS

504.1 General. Stairs shall comply with 504.

4.9.1 Minimum Number. Stairs required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.9.

IBC 1009.2 Headroom. Stairways shall have a minimum headroom clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the full width of the stairway and landing.

Exception: Spiral stairways complying with Section 1009.9 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clearance.

504.2 Treads and Risers. All steps on a flight of stairs shall have uniform riser heights and uniform tread depths. Risers shall be 4 inches (100 mm) high minimum and 7 inches (180 mm) high maximum. Treads shall be 11 inches (280 mm) deep minimum.

4.9.2 Treads and Risers. On any given flight of stairs, all steps shall have uniform riser heights and uniform tread widths. Stair treads shall be no less than 11 in (280 mm) wide, measured from riser to riser (see Fig. 18(a)). Open risers are not permitted.

IBC 1009.3 Stair treads and risers. Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. Stair tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at right angle to the tread’s leading edge. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 11 inches (279 mm) measured at a right angle to the tread’s leading edge at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the treads are narrower and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm). The greatest winder tread depth at the 12-inch (305 mm) walk line within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). 

Exceptions:

1. Circular stairways in accordance with Section 1009.7.

2. Winders in accordance with Section 1009.8.

3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.9.

4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope of the adjacent seating area in accordance with Section

1024.11.2.

5. In occupancies in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, within dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, as applicable in Section 101.2, and in occupancies in Group U, which are accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, the maximum riser height shall be 7.75 inches (197 mm) and the minimum tread depth shall be 10 inches (254 mm), the minimum winder tread depth at the walk line shall be 10 inches (254 mm), and the minimum winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 mm). A nosing not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) but not more than 1.25 inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is less than 11 inches (279 mm).

6. See the International Existing Building Code for the replacement of existing stairways.

IBC 1009.3.1 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between the largest and smallest riser or between the largest and smallest tread shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) in any flight of stairs.

Exceptions:

1. Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs complying with Section 1024.11.2.

2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with Section 1009.8, differing from rectangular treads in the same stairway flight.

Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or leading edges of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a distinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive marking stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches

(51 mm).

504.3 Open Risers. Open risers are not permitted.

See 4.9.2

See IBC 1009.3.2

504.4 Tread Surface. Stair treads shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.

EXCEPTION: Treads shall be permitted to have a slope not steeper than 1:48.

4.5.1* General. Ground and floor surfaces along accessible routes and in accessible rooms and spaces including floors, walks, ramps, stairs, and curb ramps, shall be stable, firm, slip-resistant, and shall comply with 4.5.

IBC 1009.5.1 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be securely attached.

Exception: In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than areas of parking structures accessible to the public, openings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited provided a sphere with a diameter of 1 1/8 inches (29 mm) cannot pass through the opening.

504.5 Nosings. The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be 1/2 inch (13 mm) maximum. Nosings that project beyond risers shall have the underside of the leading edge curved or beveled. Risers shall be permitted to slope under the tread at an angle of 30 degrees maximum from vertical. The permitted projection of the nosing shall extend 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) maximum over the tread below.

4.9.3 Nosings. The undersides of nosings shall not be abrupt. The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be no greater than 1/2 in (13 mm). Risers shall be sloped or the underside of the nosing shall have an angle not less than 60 degrees from the horizontal. Nosings shall project no more than 1-1/2 in (38 mm) (see Fig. 18).

IBC 1009.3.2 Profile. The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be not greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped from the underside of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The leading edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1.25 inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below and all projections of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight.

Exceptions:

1. Solid risers are not required for stairways that are not required to comply with Section 1007.3, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 inches (102 mm).

2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in Group I-3.

504.6 Handrails. Stairs shall have handrails complying with 505.

4.9.4 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails at both sides of all stairs. Handrails shall comply with 4.26 . . .

See IBC 1009.11

504.7 Wet Conditions. Stair treads and landings subject to wet conditions shall be designed to prevent the accumulation of water.

4.9.6 Outdoor Conditions. Outdoor stairs and their approaches shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces.

IBC 1009.5.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor stairways and outdoor approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occupancies in Group R-3, and occupancies in Group U that are accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, treads, platforms and landings that are part of exterior stairways in climates subject to snow or ice shall be protected to prevent the accumulation of same.

4.9.5 Detectable Warnings at Stairs. (Reserved).

505 Handrails

505.1 General. Handrails provided along walking surfaces complying with 403, required at ramps complying with 405, and required at stairs complying with 504 shall comply with 505.

505.2 Where Required. Handrails shall be provided on both sides of stairs and ramps.

EXCEPTION: In assembly areas, handrails shall not be required on both sides of aisle ramps where a handrail is provided at either side or within the aisle width.

4.8.5 Handrails. If a ramp run has a rise greater than 6 in (150 mm) or a horizontal projection greater than 72 in (1830 mm), then it shall have handrails on both sides. Handrails are not required on curb ramps or adjacent to seating in assembly areas. Handrails shall comply with 4.26 and shall have the following features:

(1) Handrails shall be provided along both sides of ramp segments. The inside handrail on switchback or dogleg ramps shall always be continuous.

4.9.4 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails at both sides of all stairs. Handrails shall comply with 4.26 and shall have the following features:

(1) Handrails shall be continuous along both sides of stairs. The inside handrail on switchback or dogleg stairs shall always be continuous (see Fig. 19(a) and (b)).

ANSI 505.2 Location. Handrails shall be provided on both sides of stairs and ramps. Note

EXCEPTION: Aisle stairs and aisle ramps provided with a handrail either at the side or within the aisle width.

IBC 1009.11 [Stair] Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side. Handrails shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.7. Handrails for ramps, where required by Section 1010.8, shall comply with this section.

Exceptions:

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024 provided with a center handrail need not have additional handrails.

2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are permitted to have a handrail on one side only.

3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change in elevation where the landing depth on each side of the change of elevation is greater than what is required for a landing do not require handrails.

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation consisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress door does not require handrails.

5. Changes in room elevations of only one riser within dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies do not require handrails.

505.3 Continuity. Handrails shall be continuous within the full length of each stair flight or ramp run. Inside handrails on switchback or dogleg stairs and ramps shall be continuous between flights or runs.

EXCEPTION: In assembly areas, handrails on ramps shall not be required to be continuous in aisles serving seating.

505.3 Continuity. Handrails shall be continuous within the full length of each stair flight or ramp run. Inside handrails on switchback or dogleg stairs or ramps shall be continuous between flights or runs. Other handrails shall comply with Sections 505.10 and 307.

EXCEPTION: Handrails in aisles serving seating.

IBC 1009.11.4 Continuity. Handrail-gripping surfaces shall be continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstructions.

Exceptions:

1. Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at a stair landing.

2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout or starting easing is allowed on the lowest tread.

3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bottom surface of the handrail that do not project horizontally beyond the sides of the handrail within 1.5 inches (38 mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall not be considered to be obstructions and provided further that for each 0.5 inch (13 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension above 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 1.5 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced by 0.125 inch (3 mm).

505.4 Height. Top of gripping surfaces of handrails shall be 34 inches (865 mm) minimum and 38 inches (965 mm) maximum vertically above walking surfaces, stair nosings, and ramp surfaces. Handrails shall be at a consistent height above walking surfaces, stair nosings, and ramp surfaces.

4.8.5(5) Top of [ramp] handrail gripping surfaces shall be mounted between 34 in and 38 in (865 mm and 965 mm) above ramp surfaces.

4.9.4(5) Top of [stair] handrail gripping surface shall be mounted between 34 in and 38 in (865 mm and 965 mm) above stair nosings.

ANSI 505.4 Height. Top of gripping surfaces of handrails shall be 34 inches (865 mm) minimum and 38 inches (965 mm) maximum vertically above stair nosings, ramp surfaces and walking surfaces. Handrails shall be at a consistent height above stair nosings, ramp surfaces and walking surfaces.

IBC 1009.11.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uniform, not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm).

505.5 Clearance. Clearance between handrail gripping surfaces and adjacent surfaces shall be 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) minimum.

4.8.5(3) The clear space between the [ramp] handrail and the wall shall be 1 - 1/2 in (38 mm).

4.9.4(3) The clear space between [stair] handrails and wall shall be 1-1/2 in (38 mm).

ANSI 505.5 Clearance. Clearance between handrail gripping surface and adjacent surfaces shall be 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) minimum.

IBC 1009.11.6 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a wall or other surface shall be a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 mm). A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements.

505.6 Gripping Surface. Handrail gripping surfaces shall be continuous along their length and shall not be obstructed along their tops or sides. The bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall not be obstructed for more than 20 percent of their length. Where provided, horizontal projections shall occur 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) minimum below the bottom of the handrail gripping surface.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1:20, the bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards.

2. The distance between horizontal projections and the bottom of the gripping surface shall be permitted to be reduced by 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for each 1/2 inch (13 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension that exceeds 4 inches (100 mm).

4.8.5(4) Gripping surfaces shall be continuous [ramp].

4.9.4(4) Gripping surfaces shall be uninterrupted by newel posts, other construction elements, or obstructions [stairs].

ANSI 505.6 Gripping Surface. Gripping surfaces shall be continuous, without interruption by newel posts, other construction elements, or obstructions.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bottom surface of the handrail shall not be considered obstructions, provided they comply with the following criteria:

a)  not more than 20 percent of the handrail length is obstructed,

b)  horizontal projections beyond the sides of the handrail occur 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) minimum below the bottom of the handrail, and provided that for each 1/2 inch (13 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension above 4 inches (100 mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 1 1/2 inch (38 mm) can be reduced by 1/8 inch (3.2 mm), and

c)  edges shall be rounded.

2. Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1:20, the bottoms of handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards.

See IBC 1009.11.4

505.7 Cross Section. Handrail gripping surfaces shall have a cross section complying with 505.7.1 or 505.7.2.

4.26.2 Size and Spacing of Grab Bars and Handrails. The diameter or width of the gripping surfaces of a handrail or grab bar shall be 1-1/4 in to 1-1/2 in (32 mm to 38 mm), or the shape shall provide an equivalent gripping surface. If handrails or grab bars are mounted adjacent to a wall, the space between the wall and the grab bar shall be 1-1/2 in (38 mm) (see Fig. 39(a), (b), (c), and (e)). Handrails may be located in a recess if the recess is a maximum of 3 in (75 mm) deep and extends at least 18 in (455 mm) above the top of the rail (see Fig. 39(d)).

ANSI 505.7 Cross Section. Handrails shall have a cross section complying with Section 505.7.1 or 505.7.2.

IBC 1009.11.3 [Stair] Handrail graspability. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 1.25 inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm) or shall provide equivalent graspability. If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6.25 inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross-section dimension of 2.25 inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).

505.7.1 Circular Cross Section. Handrail gripping surfaces with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of 1 1/4 inches (32 mm) minimum and 2 inches (51 mm) maximum.

ANSI 505.7.1 Circular Cross Section. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of 1 1/4 inches (32 mm) minimum and 2 inches (51 mm) maximum.

505.7.2 Non-Circular Cross Sections. Handrail gripping surfaces with a non-circular cross section shall have a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (100 mm) minimum and 6 1/4 inches (160 mm) maximum, and a cross-section dimension of 2 1/4 inches (57 mm) maximum.

ANSI 505.7.2 Noncircular Cross Sections. Handrails with a noncircular cross section shall have a perimeter dimension of 4 inches (100 mm) minimum and 61/4 inches (160 mm) maximum, and a cross–section dimension of 2 1/4 inches (57 mm) maximum.

505.8 Surfaces. Handrail gripping surfaces and any surfaces adjacent to them shall be free of sharp or abrasive elements and shall have rounded edges.

ANSI 505.8 Surfaces. Handrails, and any wall or other surfaces adjacent to them, shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. Edges shall be rounded.

See IBC 1009.11.6

505.9 Fittings. Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

4.8.5(7) [Ramp] Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

4.9.4(7) [Stair] Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

505.9 Fittings. Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

505.10 Handrail Extensions. Handrail gripping surfaces shall extend beyond and in the same direction of stair flights and ramp runs in accordance with 505.10.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Extensions shall not be required for continuous handrails at the inside turn of switchback or dogleg stairs and ramps.

2. In assembly areas, extensions shall not be required for ramp handrails in aisles serving seating where the handrails are discontinuous to provide access to seating and to permit crossovers within aisles.

.

ANSI 505.10 Handrail Extensions. Handrails shall extend beyond and in the same direction of stair flights and ramp runs in accordance with Section 505.10.

EXCEPTIONS:

1.  Continuous handrails at the inside turn of stairs and ramps.

2.  Extensions are not required for handrails in aisles serving seating where the handrails are discontinuous to provide access to seating and to permit crossovers within the aisle.

IBC 1009.11.5 [Stair] Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight. Where handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend horizontally at least 12 inches (305mm) beyond the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the bottom riser.

Exceptions:

1. Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not required to be accessible need extend only from the

top riser to the bottom riser.

2. Aisle handrails in Group A occupancies in accordance with Section 1024.13.

3. In alterations, full extensions of handrails shall not be required where such extensions would be hazardous due to plan configuration

4.1.6(3)(b) Stairs: Full extension of handrails at stairs shall not be required in alterations where such extensions would be hazardous or impossible due to plan configuration.

ANSI 505.10 Exception

3.  In alterations, full extensions of handrails shall not be required where such extensions would be hazardous due to plan configuration.

505.10.1 Top and Bottom Extension at Ramps. Ramp handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing for 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the landing surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent ramp run.

4.8.5(2) If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least 12 in (305 mm) beyond the top and bottom of the ramp segment and shall be parallel with the floor or ground surface (see Fig. 17).

4.8.5(6) Ends of [ramp] handrails shall be either rounded or returned smoothly to floor, wall, or post.

NOTE: Figure 17 shows front and side elevations of ramps that provide handrail extensions at the top and bottom that are 12 inches long minimum.  The handrails are located between 34 and 38 inches high, measured from the ramp surface.  Where a second rail is provided below the handrail, it is less than 27 inches high as measured from the ramp surface.  The clear dimension between handrails is shown to me 36 inches minimum.

The figure also illustrates four forms of edge protection:  2 inch minimum curbs along both sides of the ramp; walls along both sides of the ramp; rail balustrades; and a ramp surface that extends 12 inches minimum in width beyond both railings.

ANSI 505.10.1 Top and Bottom Extension at Ramps. Ramp handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or floor, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent ramp run.

505.10.2 Top Extension at Stairs. At the top of a stair flight, handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing for 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beginning directly above the first riser nosing. Extensions shall return to a wall, guard, or the landing surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight.

4.9.4(2) If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least 12 in (305 mm) beyond the top riser and at least 12 in (305 mm) plus the width of one tread beyond the bottom riser. At the top, the extension shall be parallel with the floor or ground surface. At the bottom, the handrail shall continue to slope for a distance of the width of one tread from the bottom riser; the remainder of the extension shall be horizontal (see Fig. 19(c) and (d)). Handrail extensions shall comply with 4.4.

4.9.4(6) Ends of [stair] handrails shall be either rounded or returned smoothly to floor, wall or post.

See IBC 1009.11.5

505.10.3 Bottom Extension at Stairs. At the bottom of a stair flight, handrails shall extend at the slope of the stair flight for a horizontal distance at least equal to one tread depth beyond the last riser nosing. Extension shall return to a wall, guard, or the landing surface, or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight.

See IBC 1009.11.5

IBC 1009.11.7 Stairway projections. Projections into the required width at each handrail shall not exceed 4.5 inches (114 mm) at or below the handrail height. Projections into the required width shall not be limited above the minimum headroom height required in Section 1009.2.

4.12 Windows.

4.12.1 General. (Reserved).

4.12.2 Window Hardware. (Reserved).

ANSI 506 Windows

Accessible windows shall have operable parts complying with Section 309.